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With such a view of authoritarianism, there would be assumption that the entire world is on its way to seek such democracy if it is such a clear, correct choice. 451. However, nothing is ever so simple, and this is not the case. In this essay I will take a look at how authoritarianism fails, as well as why it is able to prevail is some areas. Authoritarian forms of government do sometimes fail. The reasons for such failure include the public’s dissatisfaction with the impressionist music characteristics, current governmental regime, the …show more content… Glasnost is the perfect example of how people began to unite in their governmental dissatisfaction. Once citizens were able to speak openly about their opposition they realized many others felt the similes in fahrenheit, same way. And so, the realization of like-minded thinking allowed people to unite in their dissatisfaction. However, such dissatisfaction must be followed up with real, impactful action. Along with mere public discontent for the authoritarian regime, must come an definition, outlet for similes 451, such thoughts. People only positivist school challenge an authoritarian regime when they believe they have the means and 451 support to prevail in breaking that regime down. Without a strong, united, and capable opposition there is little hope in taking down a nondemocratic regime. However, with enough support, as well as the right support, citizens will sometimes be able to is an indirect overthrow such a regime. In the case of 451, Serbia, the creation of the Otpor (Resistance) group allowed Serbians that opposed the current regime under Milosevic to realize other citizens felt the same way, as seen in… Summary of Prevail and Transcend Scenario in Radical Evolution. Garreau emphasizes this scenario by quoting Faulkner’s famous saying that “man will prevail ‘because he has a soul, a spirit capable of passion and impressionist characteristics sacrifice and in fahrenheit endurance’” (qtd. in courtly, 209). Gareau expands on similes 451, the concept of the development of positivist, human nature in the chapter seven. Through a series of in fahrenheit, interviews and examples, Garreau attempts to explain and clarify what it means for humans to positivist transcend and how technological advance will have an similes in fahrenheit 451, impact on that transcendence. Is An Indirect. Garreau starts out the chapter… Authoritarianism: Until the Resources Dry Out Essay. rely on the unrepresented people for taxes and the regime “can effectively ignore their political demands.” Perhaps the most well known authoritarian regime of the past century is the former Soviet Union. Similes In Fahrenheit 451. However, the Soviet Union’s form of authoritarianism can more accurately be described as totalitarianism. Totalitarianism describes a regime that is centrally ruled, promotes a “well-defined ideology” and “seeks to transform and fuse the institutions of state, society, and the economy.” The Soviet… Globalization Will Prevail Over Localization Essay. It is Marry the One You Love great for the whole world to be so integrated. An enormous amount of information is available to anyone at anytime as long as they have the proper means of attaining it. Investments and other exchanges can be switched to the country with the best investment options. Trade becomes quicker therefore making the economy more effective and efficient. " In the 1990?s alone foreign investors have poured 1 trillion into developing economies. It is raising living standards in some countries faster than… The Spread of 451, Soviet-Backed Communism Across Eastern Europe after 1945. Yet there are many such cases within the purview of this question. Impressionist Music Characteristics. However, I do not completely disagree with the thesis of inevitability of Soviet-backed communism or at least some form of authoritarianism. Thus, in in fahrenheit 451, the first section of this paper, I will air much of the impressionist music characteristics, support for that assertion and conclude that it was highly likely Soviet-backed communism would eventually accomplish what it did. In Fahrenheit 451. However, in a second section, I will argue that this outcome was hardly a fait accompli… Summary of Primacy of Culture by Francis Fukuyama Essay. areas or "regional spheres" as he calls them. With all three of these ideologies discredited in some way or another, Fukuyama goes on to present Asian paternalistic authoritarianism as the most serious contender to liberal democracy in the realm of global ideologies. He starts by apa format cite website recognizing the obvious drawback; Asian authoritarianism is also a regional phenomenon. He then immediately proceeds to list the accolades of this ideology, beginning with the fact that it has forced Westerners to confront… Business: International Legal and Ethical Issues Essay. These laws will prevail over the individual country of origin laws when both countries agree to the CISG. Courts from either country would have a hard time enforcing laws against international business in another country. Matters concerning dispute resolution must be agreed upon as companies agree to do business together. What are some practical considerations of taking legal action against similes in fahrenheit 451 a foreign business partner based in another country? Companies seeking to take legal action against courtly a foreign… Mein Kampf And The Formation Of Hitlers Ideas Essay. better that others. Darwin called this “natural selection”. Social Darwinism was a concept that emerged later in the nineteenth century suggesting that what applied to nature could also apply to human society – that the strong prevail over the weak, that superior races prevail over inferior races. This concept with its theme of struggle and survival of the fittest appealed to Hitler. “Struggle” wrote Hitler “is the father of all things…He who wants to live must fight and who does not want to similes fight… fight about whose fault their extravagances had been. Common sense and love would prevail. They’d get on a budget and the storm would pass. A couple of impressionist characteristics, years into the marriage, the 451, Handsome Prince would get involved with a merger and acquisitions of the neighboring county, and definition he’d be gone a lot on business trips. The stress and loneliness of long separations would lead to disagreements, but again love would prevail. Then a child would be born to Cinderella and the Prince meaning more stress. The… Authoritarism in Argentina in similes in fahrenheit 451, the Last Fifty Years Essay. authoritarian changed the principal lines of the apa format, former government in their social, economic, and political ideas. Argentina in the early 1930s was led by a “populist” government, which was the dominant national political coalition, then converted to an authoritarianism government with alternative economic strategies, and improved social programs. Argentina basic information current president is Cristina Fernandez the country is divided into 23 provinces and one autonomous. Argentina was a Spanish colony established… Summary of in fahrenheit, The Whale and the Reactor by Langdon Winner Essay. power and authority" (19). He reviews the ideas of Kropotikin, Morris Hayes, Lillienthal, Boorstein and Mumford on his way to answering his question. For example, Hayes states that "deployment of nuclear power facilities must lead society toward authoritarianism" because of safety concerns (19-20). Malcolm X. W believes "that technical systems of various kinds are deeply interwoven in similes in fahrenheit 451, the conditions of modern politics [and further, that the] physical arrangements of industrial production, warfare, communications…

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analyse the case study and descriptive approach to research

Table of Contents. 41: Descriptive Research Methodologies. Descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of similes 451, either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of both, often within the positivist school same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. The type of similes in fahrenheit 451, question asked by the researcher will ultimately determine the type of definition, approach necessary to complete an accurate assessment of the topic at hand. Descriptive studies, primarily concerned with finding out similes "what is," might be applied to investigate the following questions: Do teachers hold favorable attitudes toward using computers in schools? What kinds of activities that involve technology occur in sixth-grade classrooms and how frequently do they occur? What have been the define malcolm x reactions of school administrators to technological innovations in teaching the social sciences? How have high school computing courses changed over similes 451 the last 10 years? How do the new multimediated textbooks compare to the print-based textbooks? How are decisions being made about using Channel One in schools, and for those schools that choose to use it, how is Channel One being implemented? What is the music best way to provide access to computer equipment in schools? How should instructional designers improve software design to make the software more appealing to students? To what degree are special-education teachers well versed concerning assistive technology? Is there a relationship between experience with multimedia computers and problem-solving skills? How successful is a certain satellite-delivered Spanish course in terms of motivational value and academic achievement? Do teachers actually implement technology in similes the way they perceive? How many people use the AECT gopher server, and what do they use if for? Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. Website. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of similes in fahrenheit, a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and malcolm x then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual aids such as graphs and similes in fahrenheit charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to positivist manageable form. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the in fahrenheit 451 research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. Those patterns aid the mind in courtly definition comprehending a qualitative study and its implications. Most quantitative research falls into two areas: studies that describe events and studies aimed at similes 451, discovering inferences or causal relationships. What Is An Indirect Proof. Descriptive studies are aimed at finding out "what is," so observational and similes survey methods are frequently used to collect descriptive data (Borg & Gall, 1989). Studies of this type might describe the current state of impressionist music, multimedia usage in schools or patterns of activity resulting from group work at the computer. An example of this is Cochenour, Hakes, and Neal's (1994) study of trends in compressed video applications with education and the private sector. Descriptive studies report summary data such as measures of central tendency including the mean, median, mode, deviance from the mean, variation, percentage, and correlation between variables. Survey research commonly includes that type of in fahrenheit, measurement, but often goes beyond the descriptive statistics in order to draw inferences. See, for what indirect, example, Signer's (1991) survey of computer-assisted instruction and at-risk students, or Nolan, McKinnon, and Soler's (1992) research on achieving equitable access to school computers. Thick, rich descriptions of phenomena can also emerge from qualitative studies, case studies, observational studies, interviews, and similes in fahrenheit 451 portfolio assessments. Robinson's (1994) case study of a televised news program in classrooms and Lee's (1994) case study about identifying values concerning school restructuring are excellent examples of impressionist, case studies. Descriptive research is unique in the number of variables employed. Like other types of research, descriptive research can include multiple variables for analysis, yet unlike other methods, it requires only one variable (Borg & Gall, 1989). Similes. For example, a descriptive study might employ methods of analyzing correlations between multiple variables by using tests such as Pearson's Product Moment correlation, regression, or multiple regression analysis. Impressionist Music. Good examples of this are the Knupfer and Hayes (1994) study about the effects of the similes 451 Channel One broadcast on knowledge of current events, Manaev's (1991) study about mass media effectiveness, McKenna's (1993) study of the relationship between attributes of a radio program and it's appeal to listeners, Orey and Nelson's (1994) examination of learner interactions with hypermedia environments, and Shapiro's (1991) study of memory and decision processes. On the other hand, descriptive research might simply report the percentage summary on a single variable. Examples of this are the tally of reference citations in selected instructional design and technology journals by Anglin and Towers (1992); Barry's (1994) investigation of the controversy surrounding advertising and Channel One; Lu, Morlan, Lerchlorlarn, Lee, and Dike's (1993) investigation of the international utilization of media in education (1993); and Pettersson, Metallinos, Muffoletto, Shaw, and Takakuwa's (1993) analysis of the use of verbo-visual information in teaching geography in various countries. Descriptive statistics utilize data collection and courtly analysis techniques that yield reports concerning the measures of central tendency, variation, and in fahrenheit correlation. The combination of its characteristic summary and correlational statistics, along with its focus on specific types of research questions, methods, and outcomes is what distinguishes descriptive research from other research types. Three main purposes of research are to describe, explain, and validate findings. Description emerges following creative exploration, and serves to organize the findings in apa format order to fit them with explanations, and then test or validate those explanations (Krathwohl, 1993). Many research studies call for the description of natural or man-made phenomena such as their form, structure, activity, change over time, relation to other phenomena, and similes in fahrenheit so on. The description often illuminates knowledge that we might not otherwise notice or even encounter. Positivist. Several important scientific discoveries as well as anthropological information about events outside of our common experiences have resulted from making such descriptions. For example, astronomers use their telescopes to develop descriptions of in fahrenheit, different parts of the universe, anthropologists describe life events of socially atypical situations or cultures uniquely different from our own, and educational researchers describe activities within classrooms concerning the implementation of technology. Courtly Definition. This process sometimes results in the discovery of stars and in fahrenheit 451 stellar events, new knowledge about music characteristics, value systems or practices of other cultures, or even the reality of classroom life as new technologies are implemented within schools. Educational researchers might use observational, survey, and interview techniques to collect data about in fahrenheit 451, group dynamics during computer-based activities. Positivist. These data could then be used to recommend specific strategies for implementing computers or improving teaching strategies. Two excellent studies concerning the role of collaborative groups were conducted by Webb (1982), and similes in fahrenheit Rysavy and malcolm Sales (1991). Noreen Webb's landmark study used descriptive research techniques to investigate collaborative groups as they worked within classrooms. Rysavy and Sales also apply a descriptive approach to study the role of group collaboration for working at computers. The Rysavy and Sales approach did not observe students in classrooms, but reported certain common findings that emerged through a literature search. Descriptive studies have an important role in educational research. They have greatly increased our knowledge about what happens in schools. Some of the important books in education have reported studies of this type: Life in similes Classrooms, by Philip Jackson; The Good High School, by Sara Lawrence Lightfoot; Teachers and website Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, by Larry Cuban; A Place Called School, by John Goodlad; Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Learning, by 451, D. M. X. Moore and Dwyer; Computers in Education: Social, Political, and Historical Perspectives, by similes in fahrenheit 451, Muffoletto and Knupfer; and Marry Essay Contemporary Issues in American Distance Education, by similes, M. G. Moore. Henry J. Define Malcolm X. Becker's (1986) series of survey reports concerning the implementation of computers into in fahrenheit, schools across the United States as well as Nancy Nelson Knupfer's (1988) reports about teacher's opinions and patterns of computer usage also fit partially within the realm of apa format, descriptive research. Both studies describe categories of in fahrenheit 451, data and use statistical analysis to examine correlations between specific variables. Both also go beyond the bounds of descriptive research and apa format cite website conduct further statistical procedures appropriate to their research questions, thus enabling them to make further recommendations about implementing computing technology in similes 451 ways to support grassroots change and characteristics equitable practices within the schools. Finally, Knupfer's study extended the analysis and conclusions in order to yield suggestions for instructional designers involved with educational computing. 41.1.1 The Nature of Descriptive Research. The descriptive function of research is heavily dependent on instrumentation for measurement and in fahrenheit observation (Borg & Gall, 1989). Researchers may work for many years to perfect such instrumentation so that the resulting measurement will be accurate, reliable, and generalizable. Instruments such as the electron microscope, standardized tests for various purposes, the United States census, Michael Simonson's questionnaires about computer usage, and scores of thoroughly validated questionnaires are examples of some instruments that yield valuable descriptive data. Once the instruments are developed, they can be used to describe phenomena of interest to the researchers. The intent of school, some descriptive research is to 451 produce statistical information about apa format, aspects of education that interests policy makers and in fahrenheit 451 educators. The National Center for Education Statistics specializes in this kind of research. Many of its findings are published in an annual volume. called Digest of Educational Statistics. The center also administers the National Assessment of malcolm x, Educational Progress (NAEP), which collects descriptive information about how well the nation's youth are doing in various subject areas. A typical NAEP publication is The Reading Report Card, which provides descriptive information about the similes reading achievement of junior high and high school students during the past 2 decades. On a larger scale, the International Association for the One Essay, the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA) has done major descriptive studies comparing the academic achievement levels of similes 451, students in many different nations, including the United States (Borg & Gall, 1989). Within the United States, huge amounts of information are being gathered continuously by apa format website, the Office of Technology Assessment, which influences policy concerning technology in education. As a way of offering guidance about the potential of technologies for distance education, that office has published a book called Linking for Learning: A New Course for Education, which offers descriptions of distance education and its potential. There has been an ongoing debate among researchers about the value of quantitative (see 40.1.2) versus qualitative research, and certain remarks have targeted descriptive research as being less pure than traditional experimental, quantitative designs. Rumors abound that young researchers must conduct quantitative research in order to get published in Educational Technology Research and Development and other prestigious journals in the field. One camp argues the benefits of a scientific approach to educational research, thus preferring the experimental, quantitative approach, while the other camp posits the need to recognize the unique human side of educational research questions and thus prefers to use qualitative research methodology. Because descriptive research spans both quantitative and similes qualitative methodologies, it brings the ability to describe events in greater or less depth as needed, to focus on impressionist characteristics, various elements of in fahrenheit 451, different research techniques, and to engage quantitative statistics to school organize information in meaningful ways. The citations within this chapter provide ample evidence that descriptive research can indeed be published in prestigious journals. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to similes in fahrenheit 451 important recommendations. For example, Galloway (1992) bases recommendations for teaching with computer analogies on descriptive data, and Wehrs (1992) draws reasonable conclusions about definition, using expert systems to support academic advising. On the other hand, descriptive research can be misused by those who do not understand its purpose and limitations. For example, one cannot try to draw conclusions that show cause and effect, because that is beyond the bounds of the statistics employed. Borg and Gall (1989) classify the outcomes of educational research into the four categories of description, prediction, improvement, and in fahrenheit explanation. They say that descriptive research describes natural or man-made educational phenomena that is of interest to policy makers and educators. Predictions of educational phenomenon seek to determine whether certain students are at risk and if teachers should use different techniques to instruct them. Research about improvement asks whether a certain technique does something to the One Essay help students learn better and whether certain interventions can improve student learning by applying causal-comparative, correlational, and experimental methods. The final category of explanation posits that research is able to explain a set of phenomena that leads to similes 451 our ability to describe, predict, and control the phenomena with a high level of certainty and accuracy. This usually takes the form of theories. The methods of collecting data for the One You Love, descriptive research can be employed singly or in various combinations, depending on the research questions at hand. Descriptive research often calls upon quasi-experimental research design (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). Some of the common data collection methods applied to questions within the realm of descriptive research include surveys, interviews, observations, and portfolios. Updated August 3, 2001. The Association for Educational Communications and 451 Technology.

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In the book Fahrenheit 451, what are two similes Montag uses to

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In the book Fahrenheit 451, what are two similes Montag uses to
Leadership Styles And Productivity. There have been as many definitions of Leadership as many have tried to define it. In Fahrenheit? The sheer complexity of the concept can be understood by the magnitude of the music characteristics number of research articles available on the internet today. There has been none universally accepted definition however though there are a few definitions which are most sought after. According to Bass (1990), 'Leadership is an interaction between two or more members of a group that often involves as structuring or restructuring of the situation and similes in fahrenheit 451 the perceptions and expectations of the members. Leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of the other in the group. Any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership (pp. 19-20)'. Pfinffner and Preshtus define leadership as 'a kind of moral spirit and responsibility in the leader, which is led to unifying the impressionist characteristics efforts of the employees in order to achieve goals which exceed personal interests' (Hamadat, 2006: 16). Leadership can be explained as the ability of an 451 individual to have power that focuses on how to establish directions by adapting forces (Go et al., 1996). From an organisational perspective, Schermerhorn (1999) believed that leading is a process used to motivate and to influence others to work hard in order to realize and support organisational goals, while Hersey et al. (2001) believed that leadership influences individuals' behaviour based on both individuals' and organisational goals. Robbins (2001) defined leadership as the courtly definition ability of an individual to influence the 451 behaviour of a group to achieve organisational goals. Most, if not all definitions are circumferenced around two aspects of Leadership, one being the traits that the leaders elicit and other happens to be the courtly organisational or group goals as the situation may be which clearly exemplifies the fact that leadership has a significant influence on the results achieved by the group or the organisation. However, it is important to understand that situations and contexts vary in varied organisations and in fahrenheit one kind of leadership may not work effectively in all the situations. What? Hence, it is important for organisations and the Leaders themselves to understand the expectations of the subordinates and then try to 451 accommodate the same in their style of Leadership. Cite Website? Before we delve deeper into the relationship of similes 451, Subordinate Performance and Leadership Styles, it is important to understand the different kinds of Leadership styles. One of the early work done by Kurt Lewin in 1939 along with a group of researchers identified three types of define malcolm, Leadership Styles ' Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez 'fair. Most of the researches have been focussed of the first two styles since the third style is similes, considered as lack of any specific leadership style which plays a dominant part only when the subordinates are motivated and website knowledgeable at the given tasks. With the in fahrenheit 451 context in Marry the One, place of an Indian manufacturing company where the workmen are more or less at the mercy of their supervisors in similes in fahrenheit, decision making the study takes only the former styles of leadership to assess the relationship of productivity and leadership style. 2.1.1 Authoritarian or Autocratic Leadership. There has been lot of discussion about Hitler regarding their leading style which necessarily involved a lot of close supervision, maintaining legitimate power (Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy). Hitler projected a personalized charismatic leadership, a style that is 'exploitative, non-egalitarian, and self-aggrandizing' (Choi). What Is An Indirect? He was extremely focused on his personal control, insisting that the 'ultimate authority rested with him and extended downward' (BBC). Hitler was known for heavily critiquing those who reported to him and became angry and similes in fahrenheit 451 frustrated with mistakes. He did not trust others, particularly the generals who reported to him during the Second World War. Without establishing a two-way relationship, Hitler could not, and impressionist music characteristics would not, rely on the opinions of similes in fahrenheit 451, others, resorting to his instincts and opinions (Geoffrey). This kind of leadership falls well within the boundaries of Authoritarian Leadership. Autocratic leadership has four major characteristics: ' The leader makes all important decisions. ' The leader is impressionist, primarily concerned with task accomplishment and not the subordinates satisfaction or well being. ' The leader maintains a considerable social distance from the subordinates. ' The leader employs punishment as a means of motivation rather than rewards. Looking at the psychological perspectives of the above mentioned style of leadership tests reveal that Autocratic Leaders score high on Abasement, Aggression and Achievement. However they score low on Intraception, Nurturance and similes in fahrenheit Social Values. With respect to the organisational perspective, it is imperative to understand that there is no certain answer to indirect which leadership style will produce the best results in an organisation. It largely depends on the organisational culture and the kind of task at hand for in fahrenheit the leader. For example, in a war, the leaders are required to make quick decisions and don't have all the time for a democratic process, which puts forward the argument that has been made above. Autocratic leadership can bring about exceptional results by more accurate decision making when the website leader has good subject expertise and similes in fahrenheit can improve the productivity, however only when the courtly definition leader is around. Similes In Fahrenheit 451? It is also suitable in situations where the workforce is new and untrained or where economies of scale is being tried to what is an be achieved which leaves little time for a democratic process to be followed in decision making. This style of leadership though most common has started to lose its shine in the present context over the democratic form of leadership. However, many still have bat in in fahrenheit, favour of courtly definition, this kind of leadership citing that it is the context which determines which kind of leadership will be effective and in fahrenheit not the absolute style per se. 2.1.2 Democratic Leadership. Kurt Lewin and his colleagues presented what has become the classic formulation of democratic leadership (Lewin & Lippitt, 1938; Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939; White & Lippitt, 1960). They distinguished democratic leadership from indirect, autocratic and laissez-faire styles, arguing that democratic leaders relied upon group decision making, active member involvement, honest praise and similes criticism, and a degree of comradeship. By contrast, leaders using the other styles were either domineering or uninvolved. Unfortunately. Lewin and his colleagues never developed the definition beyond this rough sketch, leading some critics to find undemocratic implications in their ostensibly democratic model of apa format, leadership. Despite this lack of conceptual precision, Lewin and others have identified the central element of the term: democratic leadership is behaviour that influences people in a manner consistent with and/or conducive to basic democratic principles and processes, such as self-determination, inclusiveness, equal participation, and deliberation (Dahl, 1989; Fishkin, 1991). Democratic leadership has three major characteristics: ' Distributing responsibility within the subordinates ' According to Krech et al. (1962) 'The democratic leader seeks to evoke maximum involvement and the participation of every member in the group activities and in the determination of objectives." In organisational settings it is imperative for leaders to 451 delegate tasks and the One Essay decision making within their subordinates since it helps in building a pool of future leaders for the organisation. Nagel (1987), argues that to avoid the free riding issues, democratic leader should not only ask subordinates to take on responsibility, rather be demanding in reminding them of their collective responsibilities. ' Empowering the similes 451 members ' Democratic leadership can augment members' skills by setting high but reasonable standards and asking members to challenge themselves (Tead, 1935). Members' abilities may develop through taking on new responsibilities, but leaders can also play a direct role by offering instruction or suggestions, particularly when asked to the One Essay do so (Busch, 1934; Lewin et al., 1939). Good leaders "can expand their ranks by becoming 'role models' to change novices from 'followers' to leaders" (Baker, 1982, p. 325). Similes 451? This has particularly significant implication since shortage of define malcolm, talent pool is an important concern for organisations in the today's era. The organisations are looking at drawing leaders from the available talent pool from within the similes 451 organisation first and impressionist music then resorting to lateral hire. The organisation which has leaders who in turn can create leaders are thriving in the cut throat competition and narrowed margins. ' Aiding the subordinates in their deliberations ' Its' not enough for similes a leader to only delegate and empower subordinates but has to take the relationship to characteristics the next level through appropriate deliberation methodology. Democratic leaders must distribute responsibility appropriately and empower other group members, but they must devote the bulk of their time and energy to ensuring productive and in fahrenheit democratic decision making. Democratic leadership aids the deliberative process through constructive participation, facilitation, and the maintenance of healthy relationships and a positive emotional setting. Having talked about the facets of democratic leadership, it has be borne in mind that the definition style of leadership cannot by any means be categorized as the similes 451 better of the two leadership styles i.e. Autocratic and Democratic. Though the positives are there with democratic leadership, still previous writings on democracy and democratic leadership suggest that people often reject this form of impressionist characteristics, leadership for at similes 451, least four reasons. First, some people oppose a democratic leadership structure because it directly threatens their undemocratic authority. Moving toward democracy would strip them of some of their status, power, and, in some cases, wealth (Slater & Bennis, 1990). Second, some people have authoritarian values and are not easily swayed from a strong belief in the justness and efficiency of powerful, directive authorities (Bell, 1950; Lassey 1971; Tead, 1935). Marry The One You Love Essay? Third, most people have, to some degree, an unconscious or conscious desire for a hero, a charismatic figure capable of solving our problems and sweeping away our confusion (Abse & Jessner, 1962; Smith, 1926). Finally, some reject the notion of democratic leadership for the opposite reason, having no faith whatsoever in leaders of similes in fahrenheit 451, any kind and no belief in their necessity (Nagel, 1987; Tead, 1935) However, Lippitt (1983) identifies a number of promising trends in the 1970s and early 1980s that are probably still present today: expectations of define malcolm, shared power and responsibility are increasing; there is similes in fahrenheit, a greater degree of collaboration and communication; and people have an increasing awareness of the need for organizational openness and flexibility. With the baby boomers towards the end of the tenure and entrance of courtly definition, Gen Y, who thrive in responsibilities and accountabilities, into similes, the workforce democratic leadership could be more widespread than what the present situation unveils. Thus it is clearly evident from the above discussion that there is contextual effect to which kind of leadership style will suit a given situation and will be effective. It depends on apa format website, many factors all of which hasn't been unearthed yet, however a few common factors affecting leadership effectiveness are the similes 451 organisational culture, the malcolm time frame available for decision making for the leader, the task itself, the in fahrenheit 451 capabilities of the subordinates and of course not to apa format website miss out the country in which the organisation operates. The study will now aim to understand Global and Indian manufacturing outlook which significantly is a reason for organisations employing productivity up scaling drives and at arriving at a definition of Productivity. With so much available on similes in fahrenheit, the term today with each organisation defining productivity in its own way it becomes really important to have a clear understanding of the definition and factors involved in what indirect proof, the term 'Productivity'. 2.2 Manufacturing Outlook ' Global and Indian context. The global manufacturing sector has undergone a boisterous decade: large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and similes in fahrenheit competitiveness, making outsized contributions to school research and development, exports, and productivity growth. But the manufacturing sector has changed'bringing both opportunities and challenges'and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on old responses in the new manufacturing environment. Amidst the volatility and uncertainty in the manufacturing sector, its role in the world economy has continued to similes in fahrenheit progress. According to definition a research by Mc Kinsey and Co., the next decade and half will see the entry of approximately 1.8 billion consumers which will lead to worldwide consumption of close to $ 64 trillion. Developed economies will remain major consumers, however the share of similes in fahrenheit, developing economies will rise which will enhance the living standards of the residents. The GDP share of manufacturing in the Indian economy is poised to grow from 16% to 25% by 2022 according to India's national manufacturing policy release. Globally the manufacturing output is impressionist music characteristics, growing at about 2.7% annually in developed economies in contrast to 7.4% in the developed economies (2002-2007). When economies industrialize, manufacturing employment and output both rise rapidly, but once manufacturing's share of GDP peaks at 20 to 35 percent of GDP, it falls in an inverted U pattern, along with its share of employment. The reason is that as wages rise, consumers have more money to spend on services, and in fahrenheit 451 that sector's growth accelerates, making it more important than manufacturing as a source of Marry, growth and similes employment. Courtly Definition? The focus then shifts from mere output to the efficiency, utilization of similes, resources and cost aspect of define malcolm x, production which the similes in fahrenheit 451 impacts the hiring plans for the industry as well. Definition? For example manufacturing share of US employment declined from 25% in similes 451, 1950 to about 9% in 2008. The figure below depicts how the apa format website share of manufacturing follows the inverted U shape as the economy matures. However, the situation in in fahrenheit 451, developing economies is far from the above mentioned point and can be safely assumed that the outlook of impressionist characteristics, manufacturing looks positive in a global context with the developing economies leading the similes 451 way. In FY13, India's manufacturing sector grew slower than the rest of the define malcolm x economy, with GDP growth itself having slowed down. Concerns regarding the stability of some of the Eurozone economies, sluggish growth in the US and the slowdown in key emerging economies have affected the Indian manufacturing sector's view of the global economy. The manufacturing sector has been moving at a slower pace than the overall economy for some time now. Similes In Fahrenheit? As a result, the sector's contribution to GDP has declined marginally from 16.1 to 15.2% in the five years till March 2013. Growth rate in manufacturing reduced from 9.7% in 2010-11 to 2.7% in 2011-12 and 1% in 2012-13. Proof? In FY13, only 3.3% of the country's growth was generated by manufacturing as opposed to 83% contributed by services, according to The Central Statistics Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. A research conducted by PWC indicates that the India, China and the other developing economies will fare better than the rest of the world in regards to the growth of manufacturing industry. Similes In Fahrenheit 451? However, there will be concerns arising out of lack of domestic demand, increasing pricing pressure, interest rates and achieving cost efficiency primarily because of increase in characteristics, wages. The global economic slowdown, slow growth rates except a few Asian countries and similes in fahrenheit the persistent Euro Zone instability has continued to bother the manufacturing companies' across the globe. The outlook for the manufacturing companies has not been great in the last half a decade and the volatility that the past has witnessed is there to stay. Along with that the increase in competition and consequently its impact on pricing strategies of the organisations have put even more pressure on the manufacturing companies to focus a lot on the output vis ' a ' vis costs. With the enhancement in technology and e ' commerce becoming more and more prevalent the customers have a wider range of options to choose from and with this competitive pricing becomes even more important to capture and sustain customer base. Apa Format Cite Website? Mobile phone industry is a perfect example of the same. With the similes in fahrenheit foray of low cost manufacturers like Micromax and Karbonn in the One, the mobile industry, the pressure on bigger players like Samsung, Sony, Nokia etc. to remain competitive with their pricing grows. No player in the industry can boast of being the monopolistic company like Nokia once had in the mobile phone industry. The above discussion unveils a harsh reality for manufacturing companies across the globe i.e. to monitor their costs and improve their output for in fahrenheit 451 the similar costs that they did earlier. Achieving better capacity utilization will also be at the One You Love Essay, the back of the mind of the manufacturing community. The culmination of cost efficiency, capacity utilization, improving output at the same input resources and various other parameters including financial aspects collectively give rise to the term called 'Productivity' which the study tries to similes in fahrenheit define in the manufacturing setup in the Indian context. Productivity has normally been defined as the ratio of output available at what proof, disposal of the organisation to similes in fahrenheit the input resources that is expended. Productivity is the relationship between the quantity of output and the quantity of input used to generate that output. It is basically a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of cite website, your organisation in similes, generating output with the resources available. Productivity = Output / Input. As it is evident that there are two variable involved in the determination of productivity. Courtly Definition? Output can be measured in either physical quantity like number of units produced or in financial value like revenue, value added etc. The input can be measured in human resources (number of hours worked, number of labour engaged or the labour cost) or capital deployed to achieve the output. Various Metrics that are used to measure productivity at the organisational are profitability, value added, revenue generated, return on capital employed (ROI / ROCE), organisational growth rate etc. The measures can be single factor or multifactor basis the need of the organisation and the industry it operates in. At the operational level the similes in fahrenheit commonly used metrics of productivity measurement are labour productivity, capacity utilisation etc. Impressionist? In manufacturing companies across the 451 globe the concept of OEE (overall equipment efficiency) / OLE (overall line efficiency) has been commonly used apart from the former productivity measures. In fact, the entire operations can be broken down into proof, smaller elements like production, purchase, maintenance and allied and their productivity is being measured on an individual basis e.g. delivery lead time, production compliance, maintenance cost etc. This gives the organisation required control over the processes and more specifically the operations managers to have a closer look at 451, the gaps in the system and take short interval controls. For the the One You Love purpose of the study two productivity measures were analysed, one being OEE (overall equipment efficiency) and the other being Labour Productivity. 2.3.1 OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is similes 451, a way to monitor and improve the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Developed in the mid 1990's, OEE has become an accepted management tool to measure and evaluate plant floor productivity. The analysis of what, OEE starts with Plant Operating Time, a measure of the time available for equipment operation. Similes? For a plant which is in continuous operation will thus have at least 720 hours for operation in a month under the premise that the month consists of 30 days. For e.g. Steel making, glass making are continuous processes since the furnace cannot be shut down for any reason whatsoever as it will take long hours to reach the temperature that is define x, required for the processing. However the same is not true for many other industry like automotive, textile and many others which can have a break in the operations. In Fahrenheit? From the Plant Operating Time, downtime which are planned by the unit (Planned Shutdown) is define, deducted to arrive at Planned Production time. Planned Shutdown can be taken due to various reasons ' lack of demand of the product, strike, lockout and many others. Planned Production time is where OEE initiates since the other mentioned items are majorly out of the control of the unit manager. From the Planned Production time three losses inherent in in fahrenheit 451, any product manufacturing are reduced to arrive at the Fully Productive Time where value is added during the process in a manufacturing operation. The three losses are Down Time Loss, Speed Loss and Quality Loss which are categorized as Availability, Performance and Quality. Graphically OEE can be represented as (Illustrative): Fig 3. The table below shows the three losses and their definitions. The productive time shown above is the final output that organisations want and try to increase the same through various productivity improvement methods. Availability It is the definition ratio of Operating Time to Planned Production Time (Operating Time is Planned Production Time less Down Time Loss) Performance It is the similes ratio of Net Operating Time to Operating Time (Net Operating Time is Operating Time less Speed Loss). It is also calculated as the ratio of Actual Production to Plant Production Capacity. Quality It is the ratio of Fully Productive Time to Net Operating Time (Fully Productive Time is Net Operating Time less Quality Loss). Malcolm? This is also calculated as the ratio Quality Production to Total Production. OEE = Availability x Performance x Quality. For example, if all three contributing factors are 90.0%, the OEE would be 72.9% where as if all the factors are at 80%, the OEE would be 51.2%. This illustration clearly shows that in individual parameters, plant may be performing well (80% is considered a good number) while when combined together in the form of OEE, the performance would be considered gloomy. Worldwide studies indicate that the average OEE rate in manufacturing plants is 60% while in world class manufacturing plants Availability factor is 90%, Performance is 95% and Quality is 99.9% thus making OEE to close to 85%. OEE is an effective tool to benchmark, analyse, and improve the in fahrenheit production process. The OEE tool gives the managers the ability to measure machines for productivity improvements. Music Characteristics? OEE not only measures these inefficiencies but also groups them into categories which helps managers in analysing the machine and get a clear picture of the entire manufacturing process. A truly comprehensive OEE solution provides machine operators and production managers with continual line notification and control so that actions can be taken to prevent events that can result in downtime, slower cycle speeds, and poor product quality. It's a complete manager's tool to assess and reassess the manufacturing processes or parts of it and take corrective actions in similes 451, order to You Love improve productivity and help the organisation remain sustainable in the ever increasing competitive environment. 2.3.2 Labour Productivity. It is one of the popularly used metric for assessing the productivity of a plant in a manufacturing company. Technically, it is calculated as the ratio of Production in units to the number of labour deployed for the achievement of the output. Similes 451? There are a few variants of the same as well where the define malcolm numerator remains the same however the denominator may vary as number of labour, total hours deployed by labour or the cost of wages of the labour engaged in the manufacturing process. As a formula, Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in Units / Number of Labour deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of in fahrenheit 451, Output in courtly definition, Units / Number of Man-hours deployed for the same output. Labour Productivity = Quantity of Output in similes in fahrenheit 451, Units / Wages for the number of define x, labour deployed for the same output. With different versions available at perusal, different companies use any or a combination of labour productivity metrics to assess their plant performance. While any one of the productivity measures should suffice the understanding of plants performance, still organisations are carefully choosing a set of in fahrenheit, indicators of productivity to assess their performance vis-??-vis competition. One of the reason can be that having multiple measures allows the managers to have an eye on the detailed performance of subsystems of the proof entire system and plan accordingly. Having defined all the elements of the relationship which the study aims at establishing, it becomes imperative to in fahrenheit 451 look at Marry You Love, what the earlier researches have established between the illustrated variables. 2.4 Productivity and Leadership style. The supervisor behaviour (leadership style) is one of the key factors which impacts the performance of the frontline employees in the organisation. Quite some research has been done on the performance and leadership and the inter-linkages between the two. Numerous studies have demonstrated that such effective leadership behaviour is associated with the 451 quality of work of define, subordinates in service organizations (Bettencourt & Brown, 1997; Deluga, 1994; Pillai, Schriesheim, & Williams, 1999; Podsakoffet al., 1990; Schaubroeck & Fink, 1998). Leaders who develop a good relationship with their subordinates will in turn influence the level of discretionary behaviour of these subordinates (e.g. Settoon, Bennett, & Liden, 1996). In a field experiment, Lam and Schaubroeck (2000) found that using credible and influential people as service quality leaders could enhance the positive attitudes of bank tellers towards service quality initiatives, which result in similes in fahrenheit, a more favourable customer rating of service. MacKenzie, Podsakoff, and Rich (2001) found that transformational leaders could alter the service behaviour of frontline salespeople. Not only does effective leadership behaviour affect individual service quality, it also enhances team service quality. However, specific relationship between productivity measures of workmen and Marry the One You Love Essay supervisor's leadership in the Indian manufacturing context with the blue ' collar workmen hasn't received the requisite attention of the academicia which this study is trying to similes in fahrenheit 451 aim at. Sauer (2011) confirms the importance of leadership and its effect on the performance of employees. Sauer's study explained the importance of leadership behaviour and how the leader's performance style will affect the organization. Danish et al. (2011) discussed the effect of leadership and a manager's style, showing that these had a significant effect on the administration and its effectiveness. According to a research done of Marry, 511 frontline service providers in 6 service organisations by Harry et al., the leadership style of the supervisor plays a dominant role in producing better service quality, which is the output in this case, when the in fahrenheit work environment and organisation culture are not conducive for better efficiency. The leadership style used for cite the study were task oriented, people oriented and ethically oriented. However, in organisations where the work culture is good, leadership fails to make an impact. An alternate viewpoint can be that leadership plays a key role in creating the kind of similes in fahrenheit, environment where performance can be better (Dickson, Smith, Grojean, & Ehrhart, 2001; Koeneet al., 2002; Litwin & Stringer, 1968). Hence, the frontline employees may not be able to gauge the the One Essay importance of similes in fahrenheit 451, leadership. The situation was worse when both work culture and supervisor leadership were lacking which is the One, a clear indication that each factor present in a positive way nullifies the negative effect of the other factor. In short, the study aims to examine the relative contribution of service climate and effective leadership behaviour to employee service quality, and similes 451 the interaction effect of these two independent variables on the service quality. Johannes et al., in their study of 161 pairs of supervisor-subordinate pair in characteristics, 24 companies of Germany revealed that transformational leadership related more strongly and positively to innovation for subordinates low in organization-based self-esteem. When subordinates were low in self-presentation propensity, active-corrective transactional leadership was negatively, and transformational leadership was positively associated with task performance. This research again testifies the fact that leadership is in fahrenheit 451, a significantly affecting variable in subordinate's performance. This research also has interpretation on psychological aspects of the apa format cite website subordinates' i.e. self-esteem and similes 451 self-presentation. It also testifies the fact that different demographics of apa format cite, employees may want different kind of leadership to be effective and efficient in their task performance. This adds another dimension to similes 451 the leadership & performance relationship. A study conducted by Heba et al. among 320 heads of instructional departments from randomly selected schools show that the principals' leadership style has a significant impact on the teacher's motivation to achieve the desired task goals. Transformational leadership exhibited a positive correlation with the Marry the One Essay teacher's achievement motivation which is connected to performance excellence. Another research in similes in fahrenheit, the same area by Onne Janssen illustrates that when supervisors are perceived to be supportive of risk taking fosters innovation and the supervisors who are perceived as not supportive hinder the employees from carrying out innovative work in their task area or otherwise. The survey of 170 employees in a Dutch company reveals that when employees perceive that their supervisors respond to employee innovation in a supportive and respectful manner, they feel stimulated to malcolm use their influence to persuade their subordinates and other actors to in fahrenheit 451 support the development and realization of their new ideas. LMX (Leader Member Exchange) embodies the relationship between a leader (Supervisor) and follower (Subordinate) and was initially conceptualized by Graen and is an indirect proof colleagues (Dansereauetal.1973, Graen 1976, Graen and Cashman, 1975). According to similes in fahrenheit LMX theory the leader ' follower relation falls on a continuum where one of the ends is developed relationship i.e. high involvement and on school, the other end is exchange ' based relationship which has low involvement. The managers should be able to understand these aspects of in fahrenheit, leadership since they have a significant impact on the employee behaviours and consequently productivity and performance. However, Hofstede showed that high involvement / low involvement is also a characteristic of culture of the country which he defined as power distance. A research on 577 employees in 3 wood manufacturing companies in Pennsylvania illustrates that employees who are led by supportive leader display better organisational commitment, job satisfaction and have higher performance that the apa format cite peers who have no supportive leader. Similes 451? Also, the intention to quit the organisation was far lesser which has cost and courtly productivity implications in the longer run as well. Another study on the same lines was done by Shahabuddin et al. on 80 employees working with IT in real estate and housing development industry in Bangladesh. The study reveals that leadership indeed has a role to play in job satisfaction of the employees which in turn leads to higher productivity and performance on the job. It was found that supervisors who engaged in positive motivational behaviours tend to have more satisfied subordinates and better performance from their group members. Through their education, training, and experience, managers develop their personal leadership style (Hersey et al., 2001). This leadership style is a fundamental concern of managers and researchers (Wood, 1994) due to its effect on subordinates deliver more productive work when the leader have specific leadership styles (Mullins, 1998). If managers adopt their subordinates' preferred style giving employees the 451 respect and fair treatment they deserve, then this is seen to lead to job satisfaction, which in will affect the functioning of the organisation (Spector, 1997). Satisfied employees are absent less, show less job stress, stay at work longer, and make positive contributions to their organisations (Griffin, 2002). Furthermore, Yousef (2000) showed that leadership behaviour was positively related to impressionist characteristics job satisfaction and therefore managers needed to adopt appropriate leadership behaviour in order to improve it. Leadership style affects a range of factors such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intention, and stress (Chen and Silverthorne, 2005) and so contribute to organisational success (Rad and Yarmohammadian, 2006). A study of 220 Jonardian resort hotel employees consisting of 110 subordinates and 110 managers could not refute the possibility of a relationship between job satisfaction and leadership style of managers. However, job satisfaction was found to similes be a function of demographical factors as well. The study also revealed that democratic leadership was most prevalent which again has been reinforced by another study conducted on 300 employees across manufacturing and service organisations in the public and private setup. This study shows that participatory and altruistic management style were the positivist most desirable among various management styles. Few key findings of the exploratory study are: ' Management styles vary from culture to culture and within the specific culture from industry to industry. ' Participative management style is 451, difficult to practice as sharing of power is not easy for apa format managers. ' Excessive altruism in similes 451, business organizations may negatively affect organizational effectiveness. ' A strong positive relationship between the impressionist music management styles and in fahrenheit the effectiveness of positivist school, human resources in terms of their 'Productivity' and 'Adaptability' The various researches & studies in varied industries and countries show a definite correlation between leadership and similes in fahrenheit 451 performance and/ or job satisfaction; many a times mediated by other factors like organisational culture, work environment etc. Positivist School? The correlation holds true for most of the industries and work settings whether it be a service industry or a manufacturing industry, same with public and private sectors as well. However, the in fahrenheit 451 studies need to be furthered for the blue collar employees who have a major role to play in the One You Love Essay, the manufacturing setups since they are the ones responsible for generating the primary product of the company. Their motivation, needs and job satisfaction needs to be taken care of their supervisors if they have to extract the similes maximum productivity out of them. The productivity and leadership relation is cite, also affected by similes in fahrenheit 451, the country's culture wherein different countries respond differently to leadership styles. Meade (1967) noticed that morale, productivity and quality of product were superior in the groups which had authoritarian leadership, these results being opposite from those reported by Lippitt and White (1943) and Lippitt (1940) who used a similar sample of school, boys in an American setting. This can be the similes 451 output of the kind of courtly, culture the sample was exposed to in their upbringing. While American children learn democratic practices at an early age, Indian are subjected to hierarchy and 451 authority right from the beginning of their life and hence they get used to Marry Essay it as they grow. Another study by Meade (1967) established that Chinese college students demonstrated more group cohesion in decision making in presence of authoritarian leadership than they did to democratic leadership, while Chinese ' American demonstrated a balanced result to both authoritarian and democratic leadership. The studies in similes in fahrenheit 451, general have shown positive results in presence of leadership which has a human element imbibed in it rather to task orientation. Hence, participative, transformational and democratic leadership emerge to be favoured for job satisfaction and school engagement of employees which in turn leads to similes 451 higher productivity and better performance. A study by Robert et al. discloses negative effects of close and punitive supervision style. The study of 24 groups of 4 females each in the age group 17-19 under controlled environment reveals substantial increase in aggressive feelings toward the supervisor and in indirect aggression toward the supervisor through lowered productivity, an insignificant increase in verbal aggression toward the supervisor, and an increase of borderline significance in aggressive feelings toward co-workers in case of close supervision. Indirect Proof? When subjected to punitive supervision the similes in fahrenheit test group displayed significant increase in indirect aggression through lowered productivity and in x, verbal aggression. This kind of situation won't be favourable for similes in fahrenheit 451 the business when every organisation is vying for enhanced productivity and cohesiveness in group activities within and outside of the organisation. The study having established the define x fact that there is a relationship between leadership style and productivity of similes in fahrenheit 451, employees, aims to find out the most appropriate style of leadership for higher productivity of workmen in a manufacturing industry. Music Characteristics? It feels that democratic leadership style would fare better than authoritarian style since everyone would want to similes 451 have a say in the decision making process which consequently affects them in one way or the other. Impressionist Music Characteristics? As many manufacturing organisations these days are practicing TPM, Lean, Quality Circles, 5S and Six Sigma concepts to improve productivity all of which in some way or the other lead to similes 451 added responsibilities for the workmen and impressionist music more say in the technical decision making of the similes in fahrenheit 451 plant. Organisations have realised that for growth to be sustainable it has to be collaborative effort of each small unit in the organisation and not just top down approach. Marry Essay? However, with the education level, skill sets and imbibed Indian culture which is predominantly authoritarian it remains to similes 451 be seen if democratic leadership is correct approach for the workmen and not authoritarian/ autocratic leadership and vice versa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Business essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? 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