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TUPAC s Funeral - YouTubeHow to Write an funeral Outstanding College Application Essay. The college application essay is an essential part of the admissions process. However, when Prompt.com reviewed thousands of application essays, the company noticed that the average essay was rated C+. A report by the National Association for College Admission Counseling found that grades in college prep courses were the most important factor, followed by admission test scores. Henry Kissinger. However, the tupac application essay was ranked much higher than recommendations from counselors and henry definition teachers, class rank, the interview, extracurricular activities and many other factors. Since the college application essay is so important, ThoughtCo spoke with several experts to discover the best ways to funeral write one that will win over college admissions officers. Why the College Application Essay is the holy terror So Important. So many elements are included in tupac the application process that students may wonder why they need to worry about the essay. Fiji Water Uk. Brad Schiller, co-founder and CEO of Prompt.com, tells ThoughtCo that many applicants to the same schools may have comparable grades and test scores. вЂњHowever, the essay is the differentiator; it's one of the few pieces of an application over tupac funeral which a student has direct control, and it provides readers with a sense of who the student is, how the student will fit in at the school, and how successful the student will be both in henry definition college and upon graduation.вЂќ And for students with an uneven profile, the college application essay may provide a chance to shine. Christina DeCario, the associate director of Admissions at the College of Charleston, tells ThoughtCo that the essay provides clues about tupac, a studentвЂ™s writing skills, personality and preparedness for college. 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Merrilyn Dunlap, interim director of Admissions at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, tells ThoughtCo, вЂњI still remember reading an essay about funeral, why the david statues orange flavored tic tac is the best tic tac to eat.вЂќ She also recalls an essay that was written when the MasterCard вЂњpricelessвЂќ ads were popular. вЂњThe student opened the essay with something like: Cost to visit five college campuses = $200. Application fees for five colleges = $300. Moving away from home for the first time = priceless. In addition, Dunlap says she likes to see essays on why a student chose a particular field of study because these types of essays tend to bring out the tupac studentвЂ™s emotions. вЂњWhen they write about something that they are passionate about, it is in their favor; they become real to us.вЂќ So, what types of topics should be avoided? 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King. вЂњStories and anecdotes are an integral part of tupac funeral showing your reader who you are, but a good rule of thumb is to king david make these no more than 40% of your word count and tupac funeral leave the rest of is standard your words for tupac, reflection and analysis.вЂќ Have a conclusion. Henry Kissinger. вЂњSo many essays start off well, the second and third paragraphs are solid, and funeral then they just end,вЂќ laments DeCario. вЂњYou need to explain why you told me all the things you wrote about earlier in the essay; relate it to yourself and the essay question.вЂќ Revise early and what often . DonвЂ™t just write one draft and think youвЂ™re done. Papszycki says the essay will need to undergo several revisions вЂ“ and tupac funeral not just to catch grammatical errors. вЂњAsk your parents, teachers, high school counselors or friends for fiji water uk, their eyes and edits.вЂќ She recommends these individuals because they know the student better than anyone else, and they also want the student to succeed. вЂњTake their constructive criticism in the spirit for tupac funeral, which they intend - your benefit.вЂќ Proofread to henry the max. Tupac Funeral. DeCario recommends having someone else proofread it. And then, she says the student should read it out loud. вЂњWhen you proofread, you should check for grammar and sentence structure; when someone else proofreads, they will be looking for fiji water uk, clarity in funeral the essay; when you read it out loud, youвЂ™ll catch errors or even entire missing words like вЂaвЂ™ or вЂandвЂ™ that you didnвЂ™t catch when you read it in your head.вЂќ DonвЂ™t cram for the essay. Start early so there will be plenty of the holy terror time. Funeral. вЂњThe summer before senior year can be a great time to henry kissinger definition start work on your essay,вЂќ Papszycki explains. Use humor judiciously . вЂњItвЂ™s fine to use wit and imagination, but don't try to funeral be humorous if that's not your personality,вЂќ Papszycki advises. She also warns against forcing humor because it can have an unintended effect.
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Tupacs Funeral - YouTubeThomas C. McClintock. The Turner Thesis: After Ninety Years it Still 'Lives On,' The Journal of the American West 25:75-82 July 1986. Scanned, copy-edited, spell-checked, and tagged by Brooke Ramsay, 11/13/95. IN less than ten years, American historians undoubtedly will be observing in an appropriate manner the centennial of the "Turner Thesis." It was on 12 luly 1893, at an annual meeting of the tupac funeral, American Historical Association, that Frederick Jackson Turner first presented his frontier thesis in the now-famous paper on "The Significance of the Frontier in the holy terror American History.'' During the following two decades, in a series of articles, papers, and addresses, he elaborated on and refined the thesis, and in tupac 1920 selected thirteen of henry, these essays for republication in one volume.'1. During the 90 years since Turner first proposed the thesis, it has generated a variety of responses that have become quite astonishing in number. Not only has criticism of the thesis ''become a minor industry," as British historian Howard Temperley recently pointed out,2 but even more so has its defense, at least if neo-Turnerians (those Richard Hofstadter aptly described as "friendly revisionists") are included with Turner's disciples.3 In 1947, in a Foreword to the second edition of the collection of Turner's frontier essays, Ray Allen Billington, Turner's biographer and, at the time of tupac, his death, the most active and influential of the neo-Turnerians,4 summarized the reception and influence of the helps, thesis during the previous half century as follows: No one volume has done more to reshape the writing of American history or to recast the popularly held image of the American past than this collection of thought-provoking essays. They have, since their initial appearance, stirred usually placid historians into bitter controversy, radically altered the teaching of the nation's history, inspired a tidal wave of publication that still bulges from library shelves. offered a justification to diplomats for such divergent doctrines as imperialism and internationalism. and supplied statesmen with the arguments needed to popularize such irreconcilable objectives as the ''welfare state'' and ''rugged individualism". Tupac Funeral? 5. As Billington went on of social control, to report, during its first three decades, Turner's thesis enjoyed a reception that was so favorable as to be virtually free of criticism. Then, in the 1930s, "a full-scale assault'' was launched by critics, and "for the funeral, next two decades historical journals bristled with articles hopefully designed to bury the frontier hypothesis forever.'' However, it not only survived this assault but also, according to Billington, in the 1950s began to regain much of its former prestige and influence among scholars.6. though at that time even those who were the most friendly rejected at least some part of the thesis and made substantial revisions of others. Although the purpose of this article is to describe the status of the what is standard, Turner Thesis among scholars in the 1980s rather than to summarize its changing status over the past 90 years, there are two assessments, one published in the 1960s and the other in the 1970s, that are of such significance as to tupac warrant at forms control least brief mention. Tupac Funeral? The first is a series of henry, essays on Turner by Richard Hofstadler, published in 1968.7 What makes this assessment of the thesis significant, as it is rather favorable, is the funeral, fact that Hofstadter had been one of the leaders in the assault on fiji water uk, Turner in the 1930s and 1940s. 8 But, as Hofstadter acknowledged, by 1968 he had changed his mind. In contrast to tupac funeral his earlier blanket criticism of the thesis, which he labeled one of his ''parricidal forays'' and admitted had been destructive,9 he now based his assessment of the thesis ''on the assumption that there is indeed something of substantial merit at the core of Turner's views.'' Rather than trying "to have sport with his marginal failings''' Hofstadter suggested that the ''most valid procedure" was "to rescue whatever is viable by what is standard, cutting out what is proved wrong, tempering what is overstated, tightening what is too loosely put. and setting the whole in its proper place among the usable perspectives on our past.'""10 This was the procedure that he attempted to follow in these essays. However, he still agreed with several of Turner's sharpest critics such as Ceorge W. Funeral? Pierson, Benjamin F. Wright, Jr., and Mody C. Boatright,"11 and fiji water uk he concluded his assessment in part as follows: . Tupac? . . Fiji Water Uk? The great merit of Turnerism, for all its elliptical and funeral exasperating vagueness, was to be open-ended. The frontier idea, though dissected at one point and minimized at another, keeps popping up in new forms. posing new questions to its questioners, always prodding investigation into new areas . . . the inquiry propagated among critics and fiji water uk friendly revisionists has now reached a volume that overmatches the tupac funeral, work of his disciples. This mountain of Turner criticism is his most certain monument.12. This final assessment by Hotstadter came close to fiji water uk ''damning" the thesis "with faint praise." If he was somewhat less critical than he had been in the 1940s, he certainly continued to be more critical than the tupac funeral, neoTurnerians, those whom he referred to as the ''friendly revisionists." More representative of this group is Jackson Putnam. In an article, "The Turner Thesis and the holy terror the Westward Movement: A Reappraisal,'' published in 1976,'13 Putnam updated Billington's earlier summary of the reception and tupac funeral status of the henry, thesis. More important, he also included an analysis of the thesis and a response to his critics that were so perceptive and persuasiveas to place Putnam among the leading present-day neo-Turnerians. Typical of these revisionists, he acknowledged that Turner had been guilty of tupac, ''gross simplification and audacious overstatement" and that his language had been too ''poetic, ambiguous and lacking in precise definition.'' As a consequence, he reported' the thesis ''eventually came under thoroughgoing assault, the fiji water uk, fury of which occasionally came to tupac resemble the no-holds-barred character of the attacks of Turner's frontiersmen upon their wilderness adversaries. "'14 Nevertheless, Putnam maintained that ''much of function helps marketers:, . . . [Turner's] presentation was still valid. Tupac? . ., that his earlier essays were almost as suggestive and vital as when he wrote them, and that many of the contentions of of social control, his adversaries were more quaint and old-fashioned than those of the master himself." 15. More recently, two books have been published which, in their assessments of the Turner Thesis, confirm that, indeed, it is still very much alive. Nevertheless, although the authors acknowledge the continuing value and great influence of the thesis, their assessments, like those of Billington, Putnam, and other neo-Turnerians, also are critical. Unfortunately, however, although their criticism in general is similar to that of the neo-Turnerians. several of their criticisms at tupac best seem rather misplaced and at worst are characterized by the holy terror, what Wilbur Jacobs has called the tupac funeral, "needless bickering'"16 and by kissinger, misinterpretations or distortions that are reminiscent of the attacks on the thesis in the 1930s and 1940s. The most recent of the two books is a collection of 17 bibliographical essays on the history of the American West with a Foreword by Rodman W. Paul and an Introduction by its editor, Michael P. Malone.17 According to Malone, the purpose of the essays "is to describe what has been done. how well it has been done. and what needs to be done" in Western history'18 and not only in such traditional fields as exploration, the tupac, fur trade, Indians, mining, Mormons, agriculture, transportation, violence, and politics but also in what language less traditional ones such as urbanization, women. ethnic and tupac funeral racial minorities, and the holy terror culture. Significantly, as Rodman Paul points out in his Foreword, among the characteristics of this superb collection of essays that ''deserve special comment" is "the continuing towering presence of Frederick Jackson Turner" (as well as Herbert Eugene Bolton and Walter Prescott Webb).'19 What Paul is referring to is the fact that, of the 18 essays, including Malone's Introduction, at tupac funeral least 10 discuss the Turner Thesis, several in considerable detail. The Advertising Function Helps Marketers:? Malone, for example, states that `'no interpretation of American history has ever had a more lasting or decisive impact." As had Billington and Putnam, he then goes on briefly to describe the changing assessments of the thesis since its initial appearance. In doing so, he reports that after being rejected by funeral, many historians in the 1930s and 1940s, it "enjoyed a resurgence after World War 11, and it lives on, especially among historians of the what is standard language, West who have modified it, refined it, and placed it in a credible context of a multiplicity of historical factors that shaped American civilization." 20 Although Malone mentions only Ray Allen Billington as an example of the tupac funeral, historians of the West who have modified and refined the thesis, Putnam and the authors of fiji water uk, several of the essays in this volume are also obvious examples. Another important characteristic of this collection of essays, however, as Paul points out, is the fact that 'criticism of funeral, Turner is especially prevalent." Although, as he goes on to report, the the holy terror, authors of these essays do not regard Turner "with the scorn shown by some critics of a generation ago, most find serious lacks now that western history has produced a whole congeries of subfields that seem to demand attention."21 Certainly the tupac, major criticism of Turner in these essays is henry his failure to mention, or at tupac funeral least adequately to discuss important features of or influences on frontier and Western history. Among those specifically mentioned are mining, territorial administration, frontier politics, conflict and the holy terror violence within the West, urbanization, women, racial and ethnic minorities, and culture. Although this particular criticism of Turner is not a new one. it appears especially convincing in these essays because of their purpose and scope. However, the authors of several of these essays not only criticize Turner for his failure to mention such features or influences but also hold him responsible for tupac, their continued neglect during the king statues, more than a half century since he published his frontier essays. According to Clark C. Spence, for example. Tupac Funeral? ''In part, the past neglect of the statues, history of mining stems from the impact of the Turnerian emphasis on things political, on individualism, democracy, environmental influence, and on the pre-Appomattox era." 22 Similarly, Sandra L. Myres suggests that, because Turner's frontiers were as devoid of women as the Great Plains were devoid of trees,'' since his ''essay appeared, American high school and college students have read about the 'winning of the West' in a series of well-written and often exciting texts . . . [that] dismissed women as 'invisible, few in funeral number, and not important to the process of taming a wilderness.' "23 And Richard W. Etulain, in his essay, discusses several ways in which ''Turner's attitudes toward frontier societies retarded interest in western cultural history."24 Although this collection of essays certainly reveals the "continuing towering presence'' and ''decisive impact'' of Turner, it is most difficult to believe that his influence has been quite as towering and decisive as suggested by Spence, Myres, and Etulain. To attribute to response helps marketers: him such great and continuing influence is, in one sense quite flattering, but it also strikes one as rather exaggerated and even unfair. Just a few months prior to the publication of Malone's Historians and the American West , two young American historians, James W. Davidson and Mark H. Lytle, published a collection of essays that also includes evidence that the tupac funeral, Turner Thesis "lives on."25 However, although both books are collections of essays, they are, in several ways, quite different. For example, whereas each essay in the collection edited by Michael Malone has been written by a different historian, Davidson and Lytle are the authors of all 13 essays (and a Prologue) in their volume. A second difference is that the essays in the Malone volume concentrate exclusively on the American West whereas those of Davidson and the holy terror Lytle concern American history in general. A third and particularly significant contrast between the two collections of essays is the purpose or objective for tupac, which they have been written. According to david Malone, the funeral, purpose of the essays in his volume is to provide ''a better understanding of fiji water uk, what several generations of western historians have accomplished and failed to tupac accomplish, and of the legacy and tasks they have left to this and to future generations" of historians. Davidson and Lytle have written their essays for a very different purpose-and audience. As they report in the introduction, their essays are based on the assumption that, "if lay readers and students understood better how historians go about their work-how they examine evidence, how they pose questions, and how they reach answers," there would be less ''disinterest in or even animosity toward the study of the past" among such readers.26 In attempting to achieve their objective, Davidson and Lytle manage to include in the 13 essays an impressive number of historical problems or ''mysteries'' in American history and an equally impressive variety of methods of detection used by is standard, historians to tupac funeral solve them. In one of the essays they attempt to illustrate not only the of social, use of a ' grand theory" as a form of historical detection or interpretation but also the funeral, fact that historians frequently apply very different general theories or ''propositions'' to an historical topic, and, thus, may present quite different perceptions of king statues, that topic. As is revealed by the title of funeral, this essay, ''Jackson's Frontier-and Turner's: History and Grand Theory,'' They have selected Turner's frontier thesis to illustrate the application of a ''grand theory" to American history, and the holy terror the ''topic'' they have selected to illustrate how much disagreement there may be in historians' perceptions is Andrew Jackson. To accomplish the latter, they have selected four historians including Turner and one of his students, Thomas Perkins Abernethy.'27. Davidson's and tupac funeral Lytle's summary of Turner's thesis and perceptions of Jackson is a classic illustration of a major problem that has plagued the thesis since the 1930s-the frequent tendency of scholars, especially critics, to oversimplify or distort it. As Jackson Putnam has pointed out, there has been a ''propensity" by is standard, critics ''to misrepresent Turner's complex concepts by simplifying them and then attacking the misrepresentations."28 Although the primary purpose of Davidson and Lytle in this essay is to describe or summarize the thesis, not to criticize it, the degree to which they have oversimplified and, thus. misrepresented it is reminiscent of Turner's critics, par- ticularly those in tupac the 1930s and 1940s. The fact that the thesis continues to be subjected to such misrepresentations 90 years after its birth warrants more than passing notice. Before examining how Davidson and Lytle have oversimplified and distorted Turner's views, it first should be acknowledged in their defense that Turner's essays are not easily summarized for, as both his critics and neo-Turnerians have pointed out, they are characterized by considerable imprecision and ambiguity.29 Furthermore, a summary is difficult because Turner wrote these essays over a 20-year period of time and for a variety of audiences. Henry? As a result. Funeral? There are considerable variations in the way he presents certain parts of the thesis in the essays. However, Davidson and king david Lytle have compounded these difficulties not only tupac because the broad purposes of their essay force them to be so highly selective, particularly in the use of quotations, but also because their summary appears to the advertising response function helps be based on only one of Turner's frontier essays plus, in funeral describing his perceptions of Jackson, two pages in his hook, Rise of the New West, 1819-1829. Davidson and Lytle begin the essay with a brief summary of the frontier thesis, relying on the paper Turner read in Chicago in July 1893. Fiji Water Uk? Certainly this is an appropriate essay with which to begin such a summary as it was Turner's first and most famous presentation of the thesis as well as the most detailed. However, in presenting the traits that Turner attributed to frontiersmen, which are such a fundamental part of the thesis and, as will become apparent, so crucial to his perception of Jackson, they include only the tupac, following brief quotation from this essay: . . . That coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and inquisitiveness; that practical, inventive turn of mind, quick to what find expedients; that masterful grasp of things, lacking in the artistic but powerful to effect great ends; that restless, nervous energy: that dominant individualism, working for good and evil, and withal the buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom-these are traits of the frontier, or traits called out elsewhere because of the funeral, existence of the frontier. "30. The problem with this much-quoted passage is that, except for the reference to ''evil" consequences of individualism, the traits that Turner here attributed to the frontier are those that he regarded as positive. But he also held the frontier responsible for a number of negative traits and, thus, in failing to include these in their summary of the fiji water uk, thesis, Davidson and tupac funeral Lytle distort it-and create problems for themselves later in their discussion of Turner's perceptions of fiji water uk, Jackson. For example, earlier in tupac funeral this same 1893 essay, Turner had described the "evil'' he had in mind in the passage quoted by Davidson and helps Lytle: . . . But the democracy born of free land, strong in selfishness and tupac individualism, intolerant of administrative experience and education, and pressing individual liberty beyond its proper bounds, has its dangers as well as its benefits. individualism in America has allowed a laxity in regard to government affairs which has rendered possible the spoils system and all the manifest evils that follow from the lack of a highly developed civic spirit. In this connection may be noted also the influence of frontier conditions in permitting lax business honor, inflated paper currency and wild-cat banking. "31. At the end of this rather long discussion of the lax governmental and financial integrity on the frontier, of which, incidentally, he suggested the "recent PopuIist agitation is a case in point," he reported in a footnote that he had refrained from dwelling on the lawless characteristics of the frontier, because they are sufficiently well known. The gambler and desperado, the regulators of the Carolinas and the vigilantes of California, are types of that line of scum that the waves of advancing civilization bore before them. 32. Furthermore, in later essays Turner not only mentioned many of these same negative frontier traits but also added new ones to the list. For example, in of social control an essay written in 1896, he suggested that. . Funeral? . . The frontiersman was impatient of restraints. Society became atomic. He had little patience with finely drawn distinctions or scruples of method. The Advertising Helps? If the thing was one proper to be done, then the most immediate, rough and ready, effective way was the best way. It followed from the lack of organized political life . Tupac Funeral? . The Advertising Response? . that the individual was exalted and given free play. The West was another name for opportunity. Tupac? Here were mines to be seized, fertile valleys to be preempted, all the natural resources open to the shrewdest and the boldest. 33. Again, in 191O, he wrote, The squatter enforced his claim to lands even against the government's title by the use of fiji water uk, extralegal combinations and force. He appealed to Iynch law with little hesitation. Funeral? He was impatient of any governmental restrictions upon his individual right to deal with the wilderness. Thus many of the pioneers, following the ideal of the right of the individual to rise, subordinated the rights of the nation and posterity to the desire that the country should be "developed" and that the individual should advance with as little interference as possible. Squatter doctrines and individualism have left deep traces upon American conceptions.34. Obviously, then, the failure of Davidson and Lytle to include the dangers that Turner attributed to frontier democracy and individualism in their summary of kissinger, his thesis is a very serious omission.35. As has been mentioned, Davidson and tupac funeral Lytle, in the second part of this essay, describe Turner's perceptions of Andrew Jackson as contrasted to those of Thomas Abernethy and two other historians.36 Unfortunately, once again one of the weaknesses of david, their description is the fact that it is so brief as to be an oversimplification and, thus, a distortion. A more serious weakness is the fact that it is based on two paragraphs in his Rise of the West rather than on a number of longer and more detailed paragraphs on Jackson in his frontier essays. They begin their summary by reporting that ''For Frederick Turner, Andrew Jackson was not merely 'one of the favorites of the west,' he was 'the west itself.' "37 They then briefly describe Jackson's pioneer origins, mentioning that, as a teenage orphan, he journeyed West, eventually becoming the public prosecutor "in the frontier lands that now comprise Tennessee," in which capacity he "dispersed justice with the kind of 'coarseness and strength' Turner associated with the frontier personality."38 Next they quote the descriptions by funeral, Gallatin and Jefferson of Jackson as a member of the House of Representatives and later the Senate that Turner had included, and fiji water uk conclude this brief summary with Turner's observation that. . . . Tupac Funeral? At length the the holy terror, frontier, in the person of its leader, had found a place in the government. This six-foot backwoodsman, angular, lanternjawed, and thin, with blue eyes that blazed on occasion this choleric, impetuous, Scotch-Irish leader of men; this expert duelist and ready fighter; this embodiment of the contentious, vehement, personal west, was in tupac funeral politics to the holy terror stay.39. Again Davidson's and Lytle's use of quotations is unsatisfactory. This relatively brief passage on Jackson not only is the tupac, only one they quote but also is seriously deficient as a summary of Turner's perceptions. If they had consulted his frontier essays as well as Rise of the West, they would have discovered, n an essay published in response helps 1903, a discussion of Jackson hat began with wording that was virtually identical to he two paragraphs they had relied on from the book. however, in tupac funeral the essay this is only the first part of a long discussion of Jackson by Turner, the subsequent parts of which are even more essential in a summary of his perceptions if they are not to be incomplete or distorted. Fiji Water Uk? Turner, in the essay, continued in part as follows: . . . The frontier democracy of that time had the instincts of the clansmen in the days of Scotch border warfare. Vehement and tenacious as the democracy was, strenuously as each man contended with his neighbor for the spoils of the new country that opened before them' they all had respect for the man who best expressed their aspirations and their ideas. Tupac Funeral? He [Jackson] had the essential traits of the what is standard, Kentucky and Tennessee frontier. The Westerner defended himself and resented governmental restrictions. The duel and the blood-fueled found congenial soil in Kentucky and Tennessee. The idea of the personality of law was often dominant over the organized machinery of justice. The backwoodsman was intolerant of tupac, men who split hairs, or scrupled over the method reaching the right. The Holy Terror? In a word, the unchecked development of the individual was the significant product of this frontier democracy. It was because Andrew Jackson personified these essential Western traits that in his presidency he became the idol and the mouthpiece of the popular will. In his assault upon the Bank as an tupac engine of aristocracy. and in his denunciation of nullification' he went directly to his object with the forms of social control, ruthless energy of a frontiersman. For formal law and subtleties of State sovereignty he had the contempt of a backwoodsman. Nor is it without significance that this typical man of the new democracy will always be associated with the funeral, triumph of the king, spoils system in national politics. The triumph of Andrew Jackson marked the end of the old era of tupac funeral, trained statesmen for the Presidency. With him began the fiji water uk, era of the popular hero. During the period that followed Jackson, power passed from the tupac funeral, region of Kentucky and Tennessee to the border of the Mississippi. As Andrew Jackson is the typical democrat of the former region, so Abraham Lincoln is the king, very embodiment of the pioneer period of the Old Northwest. Funeral? Indeed, he is the embodiment of the democracy of the West. The pioneer life from which Lincoln came differed in important respects from the frontier democracy typified by Andrew Jackson. Jackson's democracy was contentious. individualistic. . Henry Kissinger? . ."40. Certainly Turner's perceptions of Jackson presented in this long passage are quite different than those described by Davidson and Lytle in tupac their very brief summary. Probably the most obvious difference is king david statues that to Turner, Jackson was not really ''the west itself' but rather was 'the typical democrat ' and ''had the essential traits" of one frontier only, the Kentucky Tennessee frontier. If any frontiersman was the embodiment of the West in general, according to Turner. it was Lincoln, not Jackson. That this was an important distinction to Turner is evident by the number of times he made it elsewhere in his frontier essays.40. This contrast in Turner's perceptions of Jackson and Lincoln underlines another crucial fact about the place of Jackson in his thesis that Davidson and Lytle also apparently have failed to recognize and that is that the frontier traits he attributed to Jackson were almost exclusively negative ones. Note, for example. the adjectives he uses in funeral describing Jackson and king the Kentucky-Tennessee frontier-e.g., ''choleric.''impetuous,'' ''intolerant,' ''contentious.' vehement. ' ' tenacious." and ''ruthless.'' It also should be noted that the traits of Jackson that Turner emphasized were mainly those associated with his presidency and Jacksonian Democracy rather than with his rise to wealth and political influence in funeral Tennessee. This fact is particularly important because Davidson and Lytle, after their brief summary of Turner's views of the frontier and Jackson, compare them with those of Thomas Abernethy, who had been one of language, Turner's graduate students. According to Davidson and Lytle, Abernethy, in his From Frontier to Plantation in Tennessee .42 which, ironically, was dedicated to Turner, ''directly refutes Turner's optimistic version of western history" and, thus, is ''a devastating attack on the frontier thesis."43 Abernethy, they report in his study of the early settlement of Tennessee, discovered that, in the scramble for land, the squatter and yeoman farmer were squeezed out by Eastern land speculators, using such questionable tactics as the issuance of large quantities of paper money. As a result, ''Instead of confirming Turner's version of a hardy democracy . . . Tupac Funeral? Abernethy painted a picture of 'free' Tennessee lands providing fortunes for already powerful men." 44. According to Davidson and fiji water uk Lytle, Abernethy also presented a very different perception of Jackson. Concentrating exclusively on his early career in Tennessee, Abernethy described his involvement in land speculation and close alliance with Blount and other men of power and wealth. He was, according to Abernethy, ''ever an aristocrat at heart." Consequently, Davidson and Lytle conclude, ''Abernathy believed that Jackson's horseback rides on tupac, behalf of real estate deserved more emphasis than any romantic notions of a galloping democrat."45. Unfortunately, here again Davidson and Lytle tend to the advertising function misrepresent or distort Turner's thesis and perceptions of funeral, Jackson. However, in this instance Abernethy is partly responsible. In the Author's Preface to the 1967 Edition of From Frontier to the holy terror Plantation in Tennessee . he wrote in part as follows: . . . Tupac Funeral? [This book] is response function a minority report, so to speak, against funeral the "frontier hypothesis" of my preceptor and friend . . . Professor Frederick Turner, to whom I dedicated the what is standard language, book. Professor Turner believed that American "democracy" originated on the western frontier and that this environmental influence was entirely beneficial to the nation. It is certainly true that living conditions on the frontier were primitive and that one could not carry his pedigree into tupac, the wilderness. Consequently, social life was much more informal than in the older, more settled communities. However, the rampant land speculation that prevailed on the advertising helps, the frontier constitutes highly persuasive evidence that there were serpents in Professor Turner's egalitarian Eden-evidence that economic and political "privilege" was not wholly absent from the Sylvan scene. 46. These statements by Abernethy, as well as those of Davidson and Lytle, as to the implications of his study of the tupac, Tennessee frontier for the Turner thesis are, to say the least, most puzzling. Certainly Turner's description of frontier society and its impact on American institutions and king david character was much less romantic and idealistic than they suggest. As we have seen, time and again in his frontier essays he acknowledged that there were, indeed, "serpents" (and "scum") in his frontier society, that "economic and political 'privilege'" was very much in tupac evidence in his "Sylvan scene." Although it is true, as the British historian H. C. Allen, for is standard language, example, has pointed out, that the role of land speculators on the frontier received too little attention in Turner's frontier essays,47 surely they were among the evils of frontier individualism that he had in mind in tupac his references to the "strenuous competition for the spoils of the new country," the "laxity in government affairs" and in "financial integrity," and "the natural resources open to david statues the shrewdest and the boldest," and in his observation that. Besides the ideals of conquest and of discovery, the tupac funeral, pioneer had the ideal of personal development, free from social and governmental constraint. He came from a civilization based on individual competition, and he brought the conception with him to the wilderness where a wealth of resources, and innumerable opportunities gave it a new scope. The prizes were for the keenest and the strongest, for them were the best bottom lands, the finest timber tracts, the king david statues, best salt-springs, the richest ore beds; and not only these natural gifts, but also the funeral, opportunities afforded in the midst of a farming society. Here were mill sites, town sites, transportation lines, banking centers, openings in the law, in politics all the varied chances for advancement afforded in a rapidly developing society where everything was open to him who knew how to the advertising response function helps seize the funeral, opportunity.48. As to response comparisons between Turner's and Abernethy's perceptions of Jackson, they are difficult to make for, as has been noted, it is Jackson's conduct as a national leader with which Turner was primarily interested, whereas Abernethy's focus was exclusively on his early career in Tennessee. However, in those brief passages in which Turner did discuss Jackson, the tupac funeral, frontiersman, he is in much less disagreement with Abernethy than Davidson and Lytle suggest. Certainly it is obvious that Jackson was no frontier hero to is standard Turner. Rather, he was a product of and spokesman for funeral, the extreme individualism that Turner considered one of the most negative products of frontier democracy' especially in Kentucky and Tennessee. Thus, Davidson's and Lytle's suggestion that Turner and what is standard Abernethy "reached diametrically opposed conclusions about Andrew Jackson" is, if not simply erroneous' very much an overstatement.49. This essay by Davidson and Lytle, and two or three in Historians and the American West , are evidence that Turner's frontier thesis continues to funeral be subjected to the holy terror misrepresentations and rather unfair, or at tupac least misplaced, criticisms that have been features of responses to it during much of the 90-plus years since Turner first proposed it in Chicago in 1893. As the the advertising function helps, assessments by neo-Turnerians such as Putnam and most of the tupac, authors of essays in Historians and the American West reveal, the thesis also continues to be subjected to henry more justified criticism because of its vagueness, imprecision, and failure to mention a number of important features of frontier history and influences on the evolution of American institutions and character. However. what is tupac funeral most striking about recent assessments is how much of the Turner Thesis is still regarded as ''suggestive and vital.'' In 1984, for example, Martin Ridge. in his introduction to a republication of Turner's 1893 essay. concluded as follows: He still has ideas worth considering because they offer Americans a usable past and a basis from the holy terror which to look into the future. His essay, still fresh and lively is now a part of the American heritage that it so shrewdly analyzed."50. Back in 1968, in the introduction to a collection of essays on Turner of which he was co-editor. Richard Hofstadter observed that ''Today it is easy to believe that historians will still be arguing over and pursuing the implications of his [Turner's] ideas at their hundredth anniversary in tupac 1993."51 Today it is even easier to believe. The Turner Thesis. as Michael Malone reports, most definitely "lives on."