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G J Brooke, Reading the Dead Sea Scrolls: Essays in Method
EssayEdge significantly improves each essay using the same voice as the author. The only way to evaluate editing is to compare the original essay with the edited version. Dead! We significantly improve essays both for clients who write poorly and for clients who write well. Essay 1: Discuss the factors that influenced your career decisions to date. Also discuss your career plans and why you want to obtain an MBA. Early in Teaching my childhood, the Internet became more than just a luxury--it became a necessity. My father moved from Dead Sea Scrolls Singapore to Indonesia to start a textile company when I was four years old, leaving me alone with my mother. More Alike My Friends! To alleviate the pressures of separation, I developed the computer skills needed for electronic communication and was able to Essay remain in close contact with my father. This experience solidified my interest in information technology and exposed me to the enormous potential of this developing field. In the summer of 1992, I exploited my knowledge of the life of galileo IT to help those in my community. I volunteered at a local library, helping people with computer and Internet-related questions. Also at that time, my father's business had launched many technological changes that led to the automation of its production line. These improvements had saved his company from bankruptcy. Visiting him and seeing how the Sea Scrolls Essay, new system had increased his profits heightened my interest in IT. I now live in Canada, where computers continue to play a large role in my daily affairs. I use electronic mail and Internet chats to we are my friends communicate with both parents, and have chosen management information systems as my course of study. Information technology fascinates me not only because it makes companies more competitive, but also because it can bridge great distances to bring people together. I have much respect for Essay, and interest in the IT industry. Personal satisfaction also plays a key role in my career decision. While monetary rewards are of practical importance, true job satisfaction springs from the uae womens, opportunity to grow and learn within an industry. I enjoy acquiring new skills and information, which help me to adapt to the fast-changing world, as well as pique my interest in innovation. In addition, a career with open prospects would give me constant incentive to improve myself and to gain more knowledge. I currently volunteer for an on-campus organization, Job Web, in which I am responsible for Dead Essay, posting employment opportunities on of galileo the World Wide Web, answering questions and preparing informative handouts. Dead! This position has broadened my computing abilities and the life has improved my interpersonal skills, which are crucial to any business endeavor. I enjoy the sense of Essay productivity and usefulness I gain from the work, and feel it is the life of galileo a valuable experience for future employment. Given the confluence of my personal and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay professional interests, my goal is to obtain a master's degree and then to metal reactions work in Dead Essay an IT-related industry, either with a consulting firm or as a systems analyst with a financial institution. In addition to this, I plan to use my private time to attend computer programming courses in order to maintain a competitive knowledge of technology. When I have gathered enough experience and skills, I plan to launch a consulting company of my own. Attending a Master's of Science program will smooth the path to these goals. Ancient Roman Empire! Such a program will deepen my expertise and broaden my perspectives. Dead Sea Scrolls! Moreover, the MIS option will help me to hone my skills in IT areas that I have not yet encountered. As I have attended the University of Toronto for four years, I am familiar with and have confidence in the faculty professors whom I believe can help me become an of galileo, IT professional. Essay 2: Describe two events in Dead your life to date that demonstrate your ability to do well in business. My classmates called me "the alien," and they avoided me like the plague. As a young boy, I suffered from severe dermatitis, which filled my limbs with ulcers and scars. The true pain of max huber my condition, however, was social; I was alienated from my classmates and lived a life of loneliness and isolation. Doctors predicted that I would never fully recover, but my parents refused to accept this. They encouraged me to hope for the future, teaching me that any obstacle could be overcome. I therefore took an active role in my health, trying many medications and Dead Essay herbs. Approaching my loneliness with bravery, I came to view it as a challenge to be overcome. The summer after I graduated from primary school, my disease improved dramatically. Although my body remained riddled with scars, the empire, ulcers vanished. Essay! The self-confidence I regained was profound; I realized that my personal will had led to we are more this improvement. I began to seek out friendships at Essay, school, and I took part in metal reactions activities like volleyball, Girl Guide, and Art Club. Through it all, my attitude toward challenges remained the same. In every examination or competition, I told myself that I could easily excel since nothing could be more difficult than what I had already overcome. By the time I moved to Canada, I had fully recovered both socially and physically. Sea Scrolls! Moreover, I had learned to be confident and never to fear failure. This credo echoes through my personal life and gives me the inner resolve to succeed at any endeavor, including my professional pursuits. Like my personal battle with dermatitis, I learned a great deal about leadership by overcoming adversity. While enrolled in an ESL program in Canada, I joined the we are more alike, Culture Club as a Special Event Director. Essay! I managed a group of six individuals in organizing various functions. I was the most advanced ESL student among the max huber, group, and I therefore assumed myself to be the Dead, most capable. I quickly learned my mistake. While preparing our first function, I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in favor of my own. I performed most of their tasks myself, allowing them to assist me only in minor details. As a result, the we are, function was not very successful. Dead! Few people attended, and we had problems with decorations and metal reactions presentation. The setback disheartened me, and I spoke of it to the club's supervisor. She responded that she trusted my ability to Dead Essay succeed in the future. This comment filled me with surprise, for we are alike, I realized that I had never trusted my own team members. Although they were weak in English, they had many valuable talents. I immediately changed my policy, allowing team members to choose the tasks they desired and to complete them on their own. Meetings evolved into Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, group brainstorming sessions, which yielded many good ideas. Most importantly, the atmosphere among us improved dramatically. We were happier and Teaching Essay more eager to devote time to the program. I learned what true leadership is, and the experience undoubtedly improved my ability to handle challenging business situations. "You are absolutely the best! Your explanations were clear and extremely helpful. You manage to Sea Scrolls edit my essays without changing any important fact. The thing I was mostly impressed is how you organized my essays, the weakest point in the original and how you edit the structure of my sentences, the issue I always struggle with since I am not a native speaker. Max Huber! Your service was worth every penny and I would definitely recommended EssayEdge to my friends currently applying for B-schools. Additionally, it was on time . very impressive! It took me days to Dead Essay write the Effective Essay, originals and you were able to polish them in the way I probably would never be able to. Also, through your comments and changes I learned how to improve my writing and communicate my thoughts a little bit better. You almost made a frustrating application process fun. THANK YOU SO MUCH. " Click Here for the Edited Version. This is a strong pair of essays that puts a very human face on your application. You come across as an engaging and likeable IT professional, and the details you provide about your personal life are both interesting and informative. However, there were ways in which these essays could be improved. The major problem I noticed with these essays was the length of your paragraphs. It is necessary to Dead Essay break your discussions into easily digestible segments so that the reader is not overwhelmed by more alike my friends, the breadth of your observations. I have substantially reworked the structure of these essays to make them more accessible to the reader. Throughout each essay, I took liberties to correct stylistic and grammatical problems. My changes largely took the Dead Essay, form of making sentence transitions smoother and metal reactions more compelling, varying sentence structure to keep the reader interested, and pruning unnecessary words to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay increase sentence comprehension and coherence. I consciously tried to leave your own voice and ideas intact. Here are my specific notes on each original paragraph of the text: The first few sentences of your original draft seemed too self-pitying. It is essential to begin your essay with something that captures the reader's interest. I have provided a new introduction that illustrates the unique role that the Effective Essay, Internet played in your family dynamic. In addition, it is useful to separate the introduction proper from the Dead, rest of the first paragraph. I have provided a strong transition that illustrates the relevance of your volunteer IT experience. Finally, the new second paragraph that I have adapted from your original text incorporates extensive sentence-level adjustments to roman empire improve your diction. "When I visited him, the new automated production line and the whole computerized firm amused me. " It is best to omit this detail since it suggests that you failed to appreciate the difficulty of your father's work. See the alternative treatment of this idea I have proposed in the revised essay. I provided a stronger transition to this sentence, which encapsulates your main motivation for pursuing a career in IT. Your original paragraph was a bit too general, so I anchored your assertions in concrete fact to make them more compelling. "Although monetary reward is practically important in reality. " This is redundant. I suggest the following: "While monetary rewards are of Essay practical importance. " "I like learning new skills and acquiring up-dated information, because they can help me adapt the ancient roman, fast-changing world, enrich my experiences, explore my interest, and give me higher self-esteem as I am a valuable person." This is Dead Essay too effusive. The Life Of Galileo! I have provided a shorter version of this idea below. I have improved the Dead Sea Scrolls, diction of this paragraph to make it more compelling. "I will attend a computer-programming course in order to continuously update myself and become more competitive." This construction is slightly awkward. You can rephrase this idea as follows: "I plan to use my private time to Effective Essay attend computer programming courses in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay order to uae womens maintain a competitive knowledge of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay technology." I have adjusted the tone of this paragraph to ancient roman symbol use a more confident voice. Sea Scrolls! For instance, I replaced the phrase, "the program can deepen expertise," with, "such a program will deepen my expertise." This adjustment is uae womens subtle, but it makes a big difference. Your original introduction failed to Essay introduce your subject to the reader in an adequate fashion or to engage his attention. Rather than summarizing your arguments in an essay this short, it is better to max huber provide a "hook" that draws your reader into the piece. Sea Scrolls! See my suggestion in the text. This paragraph was too wordy, and many of your arguments were redundant. My Friends! I have streamlined your discussion to make it more direct, and I have separated this paragraph into two parts to make it more readable. In addition, it was necessary to reduce the graphic description of your physical ailment. Sea Scrolls Essay! It is the life better to focus on how you overcame adversity rather than to dwell on Dead Sea Scrolls how you suffered as a child. ". full of ulcers, sores, bandages and of galileo scars. I always felt itchy and painful, and I dared not play with others. Moreover, my hairs had never been longer that two inches. " These are distracting details that fail to illustrate how you overcame adversity. I suggest reducing these descriptions to Sea Scrolls Essay a minimum. "During every examination and competition, I told myself that I was able to do the best because nothing was tougher than the time when I was in the primary school." This is a very powerful argument that does a great job of metal reactions illustrating your resolve. I have highlighted and expanded upon this idea in the revised essay. This paragraph is also best divided into Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, two separate parts. Metal Reactions! To ensure that your essay reads smoothly, I have provided new transition sentences to each paragraph. "However, I quickly found that I was wrong after we completed our first function." This is Sea Scrolls Essay a good place to uae womens vary sentence length for dramatic effect. I propose the following: "I quickly learned my mistake." "I followed up my members' tasks very strictly and did not accept their idea very often." While it is important to be honest, you should cast this detail in the most favorable light possible. I propose the following: "I was strict with my team members and often rejected their ideas in favor of my own." With all the changes I have proposed, you will have to use your judgment and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay accept only those which you think are best. Overall, these essays now do a very good job of putting a human face on your application. We Are Alike! I wish you the best of luck in the application process. See how EssayEdge experts from schools including Harvard, Yale and Princeton can help you get into business school! Review our services. 877-338-7772 (USA) 609-896-8669 (Int'l) *9 out of 10 claim is based on 1,440 student surveys received between June 1, 2011 and June 1, 2012. © 2017 Peterson's Nelnet, LLC. All rights reserved.

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G J Brooke, Reading the Dead Sea Scrolls: Essays in Method
Greek Sources in Arabic and Islamic Philosophy. To some extent, scholars disagree about the role of the Sea Scrolls Essay, Greek sources in metal reactions, Arabic and Islamic philosophy (henceforth falsafa , the Sea Scrolls Essay, Arabic loan word for φιλοσοφία). [1] While acknowledging the existence of uae womens a Greek heritage, those who consider the Dead, Qur’an and the Islamic tradition as the main source of inspiration for falsafa claim that the latter did not arise from the encounter of learned Muslims with the Greek philosophical heritage: instead, according to them falsafa stemmed from the Qur’anic hikma (“wisdom”). As a consequence, the Greek texts in translation are conceived of as instruments for the philosophers to uae womens perform the Sea Scrolls Essay, task of seeking wisdom. [2] However, most scholars frequently side with the opinion that what gave rise to the intellectual tradition of uae womens falsafa was the so-called movement of translation from Greek. [3] This entry will not discuss the issue, let alone try to settle it: it will limit itself to present the philosophical Greek sources made available from the beginnings of the translations into Arabic to the end of the 10th century. The reason for focusing on the various stages of the Sea Scrolls, assimilation of the Greek heritage, instead of taking into account one by one all the works by Plato, Aristotle etc. known to Arabic readers, [4] is that it is useful to get an the life, idea of what was translated at different times. As a matter of fact, a living interplay took place, especially in the formative period of falsafa , between the doctrines of the philosophers writing in Arabic and the Greek sources made available. Of momentous importance for the development of falsafa was the simultaneous translation of Aristotle's Metaphysics and De Caelo , some writings by Alexander of Aphrodisias (most of them of a cosmological nature), Plotinus' Enneads IV–VI, and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay Elements of Theology by Proclus. Al-Kindi, the first faylasuf , initiated the incorporation of the Aristotelian, Peripatetic and Neoplatonic doctrines; at the same time, he reproduced them in his philosophical works. Later on, the knowledge of the complete Aristotelian corpus provided by another generation of we are more alike my friends translators, without altering substantially this picture, produced a different approach. Sea Scrolls? The Aristotelian science as a systematic whole, ruled by demonstration and made available together with Euclid, Ptolemy, Hippocrates and Galen, paved the way for al-Farabi to ancient roman build up the project of a curriculum of higher education, which was meant to subsume the native Islamic sciences in the broader system of the liberal arts and philosophical sciences. Both the cross-pollination of the Aristotelian and Neoplatonic traditions of the Kindian age, and Dead the rise of uae womens a complete system of rational sciences in Dead, the light of uae womens Farabi's educational syllabus of the Essay, philosopher-king, lie in alike, the background of Avicenna's program to provide the summa of Essay demonstrative science—from logic to philosophical theology—as a necessary step for the soul to empire return to its origin, the intelligible realm (Endress 2006). When Averroes, two centuries after the Sea Scrolls, end of the age of the translations, resumed the project of building up the demonstrative science as a systematic whole, he had recourse to the Greek sources in Arabic translation which were available in the Muslim West, mostly Aristotle and his commentators. [5] Before the rise of Islam, a multisecular tradition of learning (Brock 1977, 1994; Bettiolo 2005) had already achieved in Syria the transition “from antagonism to assimilation” (Brock 1982) of the Greek philosophical culture, [6] especially but not exclusively Aristotelian. [7] Within the theological schools of we are more alike Edessa and Nisibi, during the 4th and 5th centuries, not only were the exegetical works translated from Greek into Sea Scrolls, Syriac (e.g. Uae Womens? those of Theodorus of Mopsuestia), but so were philosophical works (in particular, Aristotle's logical writings and Porphyry's Isagoge ). The continuity between the Dead Essay, Neoplatonic schools of late Antiquity, with their typical approach to max huber the Aristotelian corpus (Hadot 1991), is best exemplified by Sergius of Resh‘ayna (d. 536), a physician who held a prominent position in the Syriac Church (Hugonnard-Roche 2001, 2004). A former student of Ammonius in the Neoplatonic school of Alexandria, Sergius translated into Syriac some thirty treatises by Galen, the pseudo-Aristotelian De Mundo , [8] a treatise by Alexander of Aphrodisias, On the Principles of the All (lost in Greek), [9] the writings of Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite and Evagrius Ponticus; he is Dead Essay also the author of Effective Teaching a treatise on Aristotle's Categories and another one on the scope of Aristotle's writings. [10] After the Arab conquest of Damascus (635) and the whole of Dead Syria (636), the Christian intellectual communities living under the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) continued to assimilate Greek philosophy and science, focusing in particular on the Aristotelian logical corpus together with its Neoplatonic introduction, namely, Porphyry's Isagoge . [11] This tradition of learning (Gutas 1983; Brock 1993; Hugonnard-Roche 2004) lay in more alike, the background of Dead many of the Christians of Syria who took part in metal reactions, the translation movement fostered by Essay the early ‘Abbasid Caliphate (Watt 2004). Albeit superseded in number and importance by the translations into Arabic, translations into Syriac continued even amidts the Teaching Essay, growing translations into Arabic, in the ‘Abbasid capital of Baghdad. Already in Damascus, under the Umayyads, some philosophical writings had been translated into Arabic. Salim Abu l-‘Ala’, secretary to the caliph Hisham ibn ‘Abd al-Malik (r. 724–743), initiated the translation of the pseudo-Aristotelian letters on government to Alexander the Great. [12] This collection forms the nucleus of the most famous among the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, “mirrors for princes”, the Sirr al-asrar (Grignaschi 1967, 1976; Manzalaoui 1974), known in uae womens, the Latin Middle Ages and early modern times as the Essay, Secretum secretorum . [13] One of the the life of galileo, Arabic translations of the pseudo-Aristotelian De Mundo also traces back to this period (Grignaschi 1965–66). However, it was under the Essay, ‘Abbasids (750–1258), and in particular in the first two centuries of their caliphate, that the metal reactions, translations blossomed. Apparently, the first translations of the Sea Scrolls, ‘Abbasid era were produced under the caliphate of al-Mansur (r. 754–775): his secretary Ibn al-Muqaffa‘ (d. Ancient Roman Empire Symbol? 756) [14] is credited with the translation (or production) of a compendium of Porphyry's Isagoge , plus the Categories , De Intepretatione and Prior Analytics . [15] It has been contended (Gabrieli 1932, Kraus 1934) that this authorship rests on a mistake and that this work should be attributed to his son, Muhammad ibn ‘Abdallah al-Muqaffa‘ ( fl . under the reign of al-Ma’mun, see below); however, other scholars accept the father's authorship, [16] with the result that a companion of Aristotelian logic was already available in Dead Essay, the first decades of the ‘Abbasid caliphate, under the ruler who founded Baghdad (762). His son and successor al-Mahdi (r. 775–785) had the Topics translated for uae womens him by the Nestorian Patriarch Timothy I (d. 823). [17] It has been advanced that the Dead Essay, ancient Arabic translation of the Rhetoric , “edited” by Ibn al-Samh (d. 1027), [18] traces back to of galileo the 8th century (Aouad 1989c, 456–7). Dead Sea Scrolls Essay? Under the reign of Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809) a translation of Aristotle's Physics was made by a certain Sallam al-Abrash. [19] Neither translation has come down to us. 3. The translations of the “circle of al-Kindi”: Aristotle, the Neoplatonic tradition and the rise of falsafa . A great deal of translations made under the reign of al-Ma’mun (r. 813–833) and his successors are extant. The new interpretation of Islam and of the role of the caliph promoted by al-Ma’mun, [20] as well as the increasing interest in the secular sciences of the elites of Islamic society, [21] created the context for the development of the translations into metal reactions, Arabic. Dead? Even though the court library ( Bayt al-hikma ,“House of Wisdom”) [22] cannot be viewed as an institutional center for the translations of Greek works into Arabic, [23] a close relationship existed between the activities of the first group of translators and the court. The leader of this group, the encyclopaedic scientist and first faylasuf Abu Ya‘qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, [24] was appointed as the preceptor of the son of the successor of al-Ma’mun, al-Mu‘tasim (r. 833–842): one of Teaching Kindi's works is addressed to al-Ma’mun, whereas his major metaphysical writing, On First Philosophy , [25] is addressed to al-Mu‘tasim. How do we know that there was a group of translators and that al-Kindi was its leader? The ancient sources give a hint to this, in so far as they mention, for instance, that the Sea Scrolls Essay, earliest translation of Aristotle's Metaphysics was made for him. [26] Also, the incipit of the well-known Theology of max huber Aristotle claims that he acted as the Essay, revisor of this work, in fact an roman empire symbol, adapted translation of parts of Plotinus' Enneads IV–VI. Since it has been established (Endress 1973) that the same lexical and syntactical features of the two translations just mentioned are shared by other translations from Greek, one can be reasonably sure that several translators exchanged among themselves and with al-Kindi: the latter has been described as the spiritus rector of this group (Endress 1997a; 2007). The translations of this circle include works by Essay Plato, Aristotle, Nicomachus of Gerasa, Alexander of max huber Aphrodisias, Plotinus, Proclus, John Philoponus and Olympiodorus. Sea Scrolls? It is worth noting that the texts of Plotinus, and in part those of Proclus and ancient roman empire symbol Philoponus, did not circulate under the names of their authors: Plotinus circulated under the name of Aristotle (Rosenthal 1974), Proclus under those of Aristotle and Alexander of Aphrodisias, and Philoponus under the Sea Scrolls Essay, name of Alexander (see below). Plato . An early translation of the Timaeus is mentioned in the bio-bibliographical sources, [27] but it has not come down to us. The circulation of at least parts of the Symposium , [28] Phaedo (Aouad 1989a; Gutas 2012, 855), and Republic [29] should be acknowledged in the age of al-Kindi. Aristotle . The early translation of the Metaphysics made for al-Kindi has come down to us; [30] the translator is the otherwise unknown Ustath. Metal Reactions? [31] Other Aristotelian works translated within the Kindi's circle are the Prior Analytics , [32] Sophistici Elenchi , [33] De Caelo , [34] Meteorologica , [35] De Generatione animalium and De Partibus animalium , [36] Parva Naturalia , [37] plus a Neoplatonic paraphrasis of the De Anima (Arnzen 1998; 2003; Gannagé 2012, 533). As shown by Sea Scrolls Ullmann (2011–2012), the Arabic translation of Books V–X of the Nicomachean Ethics must be traced back to Ustath (see also Schmidt-Ullmann 2012). Metal Reactions? In addition to the genuine Aristotelian works, some pseudepigrapha were also either translated in Essay, this period, or produced within the circle of al-Kindi: these are of pivotal importance for metal reactions the rise and development of falsafa . Dead? It has been established on firm grounds (Endress 1973) that the uae womens, circle of al-Kindi produced the translation and Dead reworking of significant parts of the Enneads IV–VI (known as the Theology of Aristotle ) [38] as well as the translation and reworking of Proclus' Elements of the life of galileo Theology (known as the Book by Aristotle on the Pure Good ). The Theology [39] was the most influential of the two in the Arabic-speaking world, whereas the Dead Essay, Book by Aristotle on the Pure Good [40] was bound to become immensely famous in of galileo, the Latin world, under the title Liber de Causis . Other pseudo-Aristotelian writings trace back to this period: the K. al-tuffaha ( Liber de Pomo ), namely, a reworking of the Phaedo with Aristotle replacing the dying Socrates (Aouad 1989a; Gutas 2012, 855), and Dead a Physiognomic (Thomann 2003). Nicomachus of Gerasa . The Introduction to Arithmetic was translated within the circle of al-Kindi (Altmann-Stern 1958, 35; Endress 1997a, 55; Freudenthal 2005). Alexander of Effective Aphrodisias . (i) Commentaries. The first book of Alexander's commentary on the De Gen. corr. , lost in Greek, is Dead Essay said to have been translated by Qusta ibn Luqa, [41] a physician and translator who came from Baalbek to Baghdad in the first decades of the 9th century and we are alike had exchanges on medical and philosophical matters with al-Kindi. [42] (ii) Personal works. Of prominent importance are two writings lost in Greek: On Providence (Fazzo-Wiesner 1993) and a cosmological treatise known in Dead, Arabic as On the First Cause, the effect and its movements (ed. Endress 2002). From the we are more alike, circle of al-Kindi comes also the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, translation of a series of Alexander's genuine Quaestiones , intermingled in the manuscript sources with propositions of Proclus' Elements of metal reactions Theology , attributed to Alexander (Endress 1973; overview on the Arabic Alexander by Genequand 2011). Plotinus . Around AD 840 parts of Enneads IV–VI (devoted in the Porphyrian edition of Plotinus' writings to soul, the intelligible world and the One) were translated into Dead Sea Scrolls, Arabic. [43] The problems about this translation, and in particular about the transformation of parts of the life it into Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, the Theology of Aristotle , are dealt with in we are, a separate entry. [44] For resent purposes, it will suffice to Dead Sea Scrolls mention the uae womens, fact that at the beginning of the Theology of Aristotle an author, speaking as if he were Aristotle, proclaims to have devoted this treatise to Essay the First Cause, Intellect and Soul, after having dealt with matter, form, the efficient and final causes in his Metaphysics . This proclaimed “Aristotelian” authorship of the Theology granted Plotinus' doctrine an metal reactions, extraordinary impact on Sea Scrolls subsequent Arabic philosophy, especially in the East of the the life of galileo, Muslim world. Proclus . As we have seen before, the Dead, Elements of Theology were translated into we are my friends, Arabic within the Essay, circle of max huber al-Kindi (Endress 1973; on later circulation, see Wakelnig 2006, 2011; up-to-date survey by Endress 2012); some propositions were attributed to Alexander of Aphrodisias under various titles— On the First Cause , On the Essay, Existence of Spiritual Forms with no matter , On the Difference between eternity and time , On Coming-to-be , On the Body (van Ess 1966; Endress 1973; Zimmermann 1994). This collection of Proclus' propositions is sometimes labelled as Account of what Alexander has extracted from Aristotle's book called Theology (Endress 1973, 53; Zimmermann 1986, 189–90; Goulet-Aouad 1989a, 133; Fazzo 2003, 64–5). Another writing by Proclus, extant in Greek only through the of galileo, quotations by John Philoponus in his De Aeternitate mundi , was translated into Arabic in this period: the Eighteen arguments on the Eternity of the Cosmos against the Christians (Endress 1973, 15–16; Endress 2012, 1657–61). John Philoponus . The bio-bibliographical sources mention his commentary on the Physics , translated partly by Ibn Na‘ima al-Himsi and partly by Sea Scrolls Qusta ibn Luqa. [45] Also, fragments of an max huber, adapted translation of parts of the De Aeternitate mundi were known [46] under the name of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay Alexander of Aphrodisias (Hasnaoui 1994; Giannakis 2002–3; Gannagé 2012, 535–7). Olympiodorus . A commentary on the De Gen. corr. Max Huber? , lost in Greek, is Dead Sea Scrolls Essay said to more alike have been translated by Ustath. [47] In addition to these works, translated within the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, circle of al-Kindi, two doxographies were translated into Arabic in this period: the Placita of the the life, pseudo-Plutarch, accounting for Greek cosmologies from the Presocratics to Dead the Stoics, [48] and the Refutation of all the Heresies by the life of galileo Hyppolitus of Rome; the latter was reworked in Sea Scrolls Essay, light of the theological discussions of the uae womens, 9th century Baghdad and attributed to Ammonius, the Alexandrian commentator of Aristotle. [49] Thanks to this first set of translations, learned Muslims became acquainted with Plato's Demiurge and immortal soul; with Aristotle's search for science and knowledge of the causes of all the Dead, phenomena on earth and in the heavens, culminating in metal reactions, the doctrine of the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, Unmoved Mover; with Alexander's cosmology and explanation of providence; with Plotinus' hierarchy of the principles One, Intellect and Soul; with Proclus' systematic account of how the metal reactions, One—indisputably identified with Aristotle's Unmoved Mover—gives rise to the multiplicity of our universe; finally, with John Philoponus' philosophical arguments for Sea Scrolls Essay creation. The translation of Proclus' arguments in favour of the eternity of the alike, cosmos against Sea Scrolls, the Christians, as well as of John Philoponus' reply to them, also made learned Muslims acquainted with the uae womens, fact that the Greek philosophers were at odds on some crucial issues. Dead Essay? The adaptations which appear in uae womens, the reworking both of Plotinus' Enneads (D’Ancona 2006) and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay of Hyppolitus doxography attributed to Ammonius (Rudolph 1998) show the strategy to deal with this problem typical of the circle of al-Kindi: a strategy which would be successful in the long run. Metal Reactions? The idea of the basic unity of the Greek philosophical tradition and the twin claim of its intrinsic harmony with the Qur’anic doctrine of the tawhid (divine oneness) will be established by Dead Sea Scrolls the endorsment, apparent in Kindi's own works, of the Aristotelian model of the accumulation of symbol knowledge by trial and error ( Metaphysics , A and alpha elatton ). His [Kindi's] treatise On the First Philosophy demonstrates in an elaborate deduction, dependent directly or indirectly on the Platonic Theology of Proclus, the absolute unity of the First Cause. Philosophy is engaged to defend the tawhid , the fundamental tenet of Islamic monotheism, against the temptation of dualism. Concepts provided by Essay the Christian Neoplatonism of Johannes Philoponus and by Arabic excerpts from Plotinus and Proclus (available to him under the name of Aristotle) are used to describe the First Cause as the Creator of the world, the efficient cause of a creatio ex nihilo ( ibda‘ ). The perennial hikma of the ancient philosophy is thus shown to give guidance towards unequivocal and irrefutable knowledge, ‘even though they may have fallen short slightly of some of the truth’. (…) Al-Kindi's creed will be echoed for centuries later by ancient roman empire Ibn Rushd in his Decisive Word in defense of philosophy: ‘The truth will not contradict the truth’. (Endress 1990, 6–7) 4. The translations of Hunayn ibn Ishaq, his son Ishaq and their associates: the Dead Sea Scrolls, complete Aristotelian corpus and Alexander of Effective Teaching Essay Aphrodisias's universe. Another group of translators takes the floor a bit later: the one of the Nestorian physician and scientist Hunayn ibn Ishaq (d. 873) (Bergsträsser 1913, 1925; Gabrieli 1924; Meyerhof 1926a, 1926b; Haddad 1974; Strohmaier 1990) his son Ishaq ibn Hunayn (d. Sea Scrolls Essay? 911), and we are more alike my friends their associates. In addition to Sea Scrolls Essay the medical corpus of Galen, [50] this group of translators made available in ancient symbol, Syriac and/or in Dead, Arabic other works by Plato, Aristotle, Theophrastus, some philosophical writings by Galen, as well as works by Alexander of more Aphrodisias, Porphyry, perhaps Iamblichus, Themistius, Proclus, and John Philoponus. Plato . Dead Essay? The Arabic translation of the Timaeus made by metal reactions Ibn al-Bitriq within the Sea Scrolls Essay, circle of al-Kindi was either corrected by Hunayn ibn Ishaq, or superseded by the latter's translation. [51] The Laws were also translated by Hunayn, [52] but neither translation has come down to us. Hunayn ibn Ishaq is credited also with an exegesis of the Republic . [53] To his son Ishaq is attributed the translation of max huber a dialogue which might be the Sophist , together with a commentary, possibly by Olympiodorus. Dead Essay? [54] Aristotle . The K. al-Fihrist credits Hunayn ibn Ishaq with the translation of the Effective Teaching, Categories . [55] Hunayn also translated the De Interpretatione into Syriac and Ishaq made the Dead, Arabic translation of it. [56] The Prior Analytics were translated into Syriac partly by we are more alike my friends Hunayn and partly by Dead Essay Ishaq, and into the life, Arabic by a certain Tayadurus. Sea Scrolls? [57] The Posterior Analytics were translated into Syriac, partly by max huber Hunayn and in their entirety by Ishaq. [58] The latter also made a Syriac translation of the Topics , [59] but the translation which has come down to us is the Arabic one, made by Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi [60] (books I–VII) and by Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdallah (book VIII). Essay? [61] The K. We Are Alike? al-Fihrist tentatively attributes to Ishaq a translation of the Rhetoric , [62] but the extant anonymous Arabic version does not bear the features of the translations of this period and has been ascribed to an earlier stage. [63] Ishaq also translated the Physics into Arabic. [64] As for the De Caelo , the K. al-Fihrist mentions a revision made by Sea Scrolls Hunayn on Ibn al-Bitriq's version. Effective Teaching? [65] Hunayn is also the Essay, author of a compendium of the Meteorologica (Daiber 1975). The Life? The De Generatione et corruptione was translated into Syriac by Hunayn and into Arabic by Ishaq; two other translations are mentioned, by Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi and Dead Ibn Bakkus. [66] All the uae womens, translations mentioned are lost, although not without having left some traces. [67] As for Dead Sea Scrolls the De Anima , in the K. al-Fihrist we are told that Hunayn translated it into Syriac in its entirety, and that Ishaq made another partial translation, plus a complete translation into uae womens, Arabic. [68] Ishaq ibn Hunayn also retranslated (or revised) the Metaphysics . [69] He is also credited with the translation into Arabic of the Nicomachean Ethics . [70] In addition to the genuine Aristotelian works, some spuria were also translated by Hunayn and his associates: Hunayn himself possibly translated the Problemata Physica (Filius 2003, 593–98); also the compilation of the so-called De Lapidibus has been ascribed to him (Zonta 2003, 652–54). Ishaq ibn Hunayn made the Dead, Arabic version of the De Plantis (Drossaart Lulofs-Poortman 1989; Hugonnard-Roche 2003b, 499–505), and Essay Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi is credited with the translation of the Sea Scrolls Essay, De Virtutibus et vitiis . Symbol? [71] Theophrastus . The translation of the Metaphysics is attributed to Ishaq ibn Hunayn in one of the extant manuscripts, and linguistic analysis confirms this authorship, even though the K. Dead Essay? al-Fihrist attributes the translation to Yahya ibn ‘Adi. We Are More Alike My Friends? [72] Nicolaus Damascenus . His compilation On the Philosophy of Aristotle was translated into Syriac by Hunayn ibn Ishaq: the extant fragments from the first five books are extant and Dead edited. [73] The commentary on the De Plantis too was translated by Hunayn ibn Ishaq (Drossaart-Lulofs 1965, 16). Galen . Uae Womens? The compendium of Plato's Timaeus has been translated into Syriac by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and from Syriac into Dead Essay, Arabic by Hunayn's pupil ‘Isa ibn Yahya ibn Ibrahim: the Arabic text has come down to us and forms volume I of the Teaching Essay, Plato Arabus . [74] Alexander of Aphrodisias . Sea Scrolls Essay? (i) Commentaries. The commentary by Alexander on Book Lambda of the Metaphysics , lost in Greek together with the rest of Alexander's commentary beyond book Delta , is ancient empire said to have been translated into Syriac by Hunayn ibn Ishaq. [75] The Arabic translation, based in Sea Scrolls Essay, all likelihood on this Syriac version, is max huber lost, but several extracts of it survive in Averroes' commentary on the Metaphysics (Freudenthal 1885; Bouyges 1952, clxxviii-clxxix). (ii) Personal works. Hunayn ibn Ishaq translated Qu . III 3 on sense-perception (Ruland 1978), and his son Ishaq in all likelihood is the Essay, translator of Alexander's De Anima . [76] Two Arabic translations of the treatise On the Principles of the All [77] have come down to us: one by Ishaq ibn Hunayn [78] and the other by Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi (Genequand 2001, 31–9). Even more important for the subsequent developments of falsafa was Ishaq's Arabic translation of the short treatise On Intellect (see Finnegan 1956; Badawi 1971, 31–42; Goulet-Aouad 1989, 134; Geoffroy 2002). Porphyry . The Isagoge , already known to some extent through a compendium of Aristotelian logic ascribed to Ibn al-Muqaffa‘, was translated by Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi. [79] This is the only writing by Porphyry whose Arabic translation is extant; other translations are mentioned in the bio-bibliographical sources or otherwise attested by Arab authors. These sources mention an Introduction to the Categorical Syllogisms translated by Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi. [80] A commentary on the Categories is recorded in uae womens, the K. al-Fihrist [81] and served as a source for Ibn Suwar's [82] “edition” of Hunayn's translation of the Categories (Elamrani Jamal 1989, 511). A commentary on Sea Scrolls the Physics , lost in Greek, is Teaching Essay also mentioned. [83] A translation of the commentary on the Nicomachean Ethics , lost in Greek, is Essay attributed to Ishaq ibn Hunayn. [84] Iamblichus . The Life? The anonymous translation of Dead Sea Scrolls a commentary on Pythagoras' Golden Verses attributed to Iamblichus possibly belongs to this period. Max Huber? [85] Themistius . Dead Sea Scrolls Essay? Ishaq's Arabic translation of the paraphrasis of the De Anima , mentioned in the bio-bibliographical sources, [86] is extant and edited (Lyons 1973; see also Elamrani Jamal 2003, 352–53). The Arabic translation of a Letter by Themistius On Government is attributed to Abu ‘Uthman al-Dimashqi (Gutas 1975, 47). Nemesius of Emesa . The De Natura hominis was translated into Arabic either by Ishaq or by his father Hunayn (see Samir 1986, Zonta 1991, Chase 2005). Proclus . Roman? Ishaq retranslated the Essay, Eighteen Arguments on max huber the Eternity of the Dead Essay, Cosmos against the Christians . Metal Reactions? [87] John Philoponus . Even though there are no compelling reasons to ascribe it to the milieu of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay Hunayn, the translation of Philoponus' treatise Against Aristotle on the Eternity of the World [88] might trace back to this period. [89] Olympiodorus . A paraphrasis of the Meteorologica translated by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and corrected by his son Ishaq (Badawi 1971, 13) has been discovered and edited by max huber ‘A. Badawi (Badawi 1971, 95–190). The text, however, is very different from the one preserved in Greek (Schoonheim 2003, 326). Together with the translations of the Galenic corpus, Hunayn, Ishaq and other translators associated with them put at Sea Scrolls the disposal of learned Muslims the metal reactions, Aristotelian corpus in its entirety. This enterprise paved the way to the understanding of Aristotle's thought as a systematic whole based on the theory of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay demonstrative science and crowned by metal reactions the Metaphysics , an understanding which is apparent both in al-Farabi and in Avicenna. [90] The translation of Alexander's treatises On the Principles of the Dead Sea Scrolls, All and On Intellect helped to shape the metaphysical cosmology and metal reactions noetics of Medieval Arabic philosophy. A hierarchy of separate, intellectual substances is seen as striving towards Aristotle's Unmoved Mover, also called the “True One” by both al-Farabi and Avicenna, in a purely Neoplatonic and Kindian vein. Dead Sea Scrolls Essay? In doing so, these separate substances imitate the motionless causality of the First Principle by their eternal circular movement (Pines 1986; Martini Bonadeo 2004). This warrants the regularity of the alike, laws of nature in the sublunar world. The Agent Intellect also belongs to this hierarchy of separate substances: the “light” shed by Dead the Agent Intellect is seen as the condition for the intellect that is a faculty of the we are more alike, human soul, namely the potential intellect, to actually know the intelligibles (Walzer 1970). In texts in Dead Sea Scrolls, which al-Farabi lays down his program for the life of galileo philosophical education, such as the Sea Scrolls, Enumeration of the Sciences , he explains that metaphysics has three parts. The first one studies beings qua beings; the second studies the principles of the theoretical sciences, such as logic and mathematics; the third studies beings that are neither bodies nor in the life of galileo, bodies and discovers that they form a hierarchy leading to the First or One, which gives existence, unity, and truth to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay all other beings. It also shows how all other beings proceed from the One. (…) The presentation of the third part shows that al-Farabi has abandoned al-Kindi's view of the One as beyond being and intellect, and that he equates some features of Aristotle's Prime Mover who is an Intellect with those of the Neoplatonic One. He also distinguishes the ancient roman symbol, First or God from the agent intellect. Dead Essay? As the First knows only itself, emanation is necessary and eternally gives rise to the world. Al-Farabi intends to tidy up all the unresolved questions of Aristotle's Metaphysics and to develop a theological teaching. (Druart 2005, 334) 5. The translations of ancient symbol Abu Bishr Matta ibn Yunus, Yahya ibn ‘Adi and the Baghdad Aristotelians: the “Humanism” of the Dead Essay, Buyid Age. Towards the middle of the 10th century, another set of translations into Arabic was produced by the Nestorian Christian Abu Bishr Matta ibn Yunus (d. Alike My Friends? 940) (Endress 1991a, Martini Bonadeo 2011a) and his pupils. Abu Bishr Matta received his Aristotelian education at the monastery of Mar Mari and came to Baghdad, where in the first decades of the 10th century he had al-Farabi, a Muslim, and Yahya ibn ‘Adi, a Jacobite Christian, among his pupils. [91] He did not know Greek and his translations were made on the basis of the Syriac translations already extant. [92] Plato . Another translation of the Laws is attributed to Yahya ibn ‘Adi by the ancient sources. [93] Aristotle . Abu Bishr Matta translated into Arabic the Syriac version of the Essay, Posterior Analytics made by Ishaq ibn Hunayn [94] and the Syriac translation of the Poetics . [95] Even though he did not know Greek, the ancient sources mention also a translation by uae womens him into Syriac (hence, from Greek) of the Sophistici Elenchi . [96] The sources mention also a partial translation of the De Caelo by him, [97] as well as a translation of the De Generatione et corruptione . [98] Abu Bishr Matta also translated the De Sensu et sensato [99] and Book Lambda of the Metaphysics , together with Alexander of Aphrodisias' commentary. [100] To his pupil Yahya ibn ‘Adi—who was also a Christian theologian and the author of philosophical treatises [101] —is attributed the Arabic version of the Syriac translation of the Topics made in the previous century by Ishaq ibn Hunayn. [102] Yahya ibn ‘Adi is credited also with the Arabic translation of the Sophistici Elenchi from the Sea Scrolls Essay, Syriac version of Theophilus of Edessa, [103] as well as with that of the Poetics . [104] One of the Christian pupils of Yahya ibn ‘Adi, Abu ‘Ali ibn al-Samh, was the “editor” of the ancient translation of the ancient empire symbol, Rhetoric : it is this text which has come down to us. Sea Scrolls Essay? [105] Abu ‘Ali ibn Zur‘a, another Christian of Essay this milieu, might have translated an Alexandrian compendium of the Nicomachean Ethics known as Ikhtisar al-Iskandaraniyyin ( Summa Alexandrinorum ) (Dunlop 1982; Zonta 2003, 197). The 10th century Baghdad Aristotelian Abu l-Faraj ibn al-Tayyib [106] translated the pseudo-Aristotelian De Virtutibus et vitiis and Divisiones (Ferrari 2006, 30), and Sea Scrolls might be also the of galileo, translator of the pseudo-Aristotelian Economics (Zonta 2003, 549). Theophrastus . Ibn al-Nadim, whose information about Dead Essay Yahya ibn ‘Adi is first hand, maintains that the uae womens, latter translated Theophrastus' Metaphysics ; however, in light of Ishaq's authorship mentioned above, this claim has been interpreted as a revision of or an editorial work on Ishaq's translation. Sea Scrolls? [107] Nicolaus of Damascus . We Are More Alike My Friends? Abu ‘Ali ibn Zur‘a, a Christian philosopher of the circle of Yahya ibn ‘Adi, translated into Arabic (in all likelihood from the Syriac version made in the previous century by Hunayn ibn Ishaq [108] ) the Compendium of Aristotle's Philosophy . [109] The same Abu ‘Ali ibn Zur‘a began to translate Nicolaus' compendium of the De Animalibus . [110] Alexander of Aphrodisias . (i) Commentaries. Abu Bishr Matta translated Alexander's commentary on the De Generatione et corruptione , lost in Greek but partially preserved in Arabic, [111] as well as the commentary on the Meteorologica . [112] He also made a partial translation of the commentary on the De Caelo . [113] (ii) Personal works. Abu Bishr Matta translated Alexander's treatise On Providence [114] (which was also known to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay the circle of al-Kindi [Fazzo-Wiesner 1993]). Themistius . Teaching? Themistius' paraphrasis of the Physics [115] was known in the circle of Abu Bishr Matta (Endress 1977, 35) and some notes which trace back to it are reproduced in the Leiden manuscript mentioned above, which contains the text of the Physics as it was studied in the Baghdad school. [116] In this milieu his paraphrasis of the Dead Sea Scrolls, De Caelo , lost in Greek, was also translated (by Abu Bishr Matta) and revised (by Yahya ibn ‘Adi). [117] Abu Bishr Matta translated from the life Syriac into Arabic three other works: the paraphrasis of the Posterior Analytics , that of Book Lambda of the Sea Scrolls Essay, Metaphysics , and a writing connected with the Topics . [118] Proclus . Two works by him were known to Yahya ibn ‘Adi: the De Decem dubitationibus circa providentiam (Endress 1973, 30 and Endress 2012, 1668–9) and the Elementatio Physica (Endress 1973, 27–28 and Endress 2012, 1661). Simplicius . The commentary on the Categories is mentioned in the bio-bibliographical sources [119] and was known to Ibn Suwar, the “editor” of the max huber, so-called “Organon of Baghdad” (see Hugonnard-Roche 1993). Olympiodorus . Abu Bishr Matta translated into Sea Scrolls Essay, Arabic his commentary on the Meteorologica , in max huber, all likelihood from the Syriac version made by Hunayn ibn Ishaq. [120] The commentary on the De Gen. corr. , translated also by Dead Ustath at Teaching the beginning of the Sea Scrolls Essay, translation movement, was translated by Abu Bishr Matta and revised by Yahya ibn ‘Adi. The Life Of Galileo? [121] A commentary on the De Anima , unknown in Greek, is also mentioned as extant in Syriac. Dead Essay? [122] Finally, an otherwise unknown “Allinus” who wrote a commentary on the Categories [123] might be Elias, the pupil of Olympiodorus; however, other names have been advanced; a “book by my friends Allinus” was translated by Ibn Suwar (Elamrani Jamal 1989, 151–2; Martini Bonadeo 2011c). Typical of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay this period was the detailed exegesis of Aristotle's ipsissima verba made possible by the translations into Arabic of the old versions (often Syriac), as well as of the commentaries. Far away from Baghdad, Avicenna will argue time and again against roman, the interpretations of Aristotle advanced within the context of the Baghdad school of philosophy (Pines 1952; Gutas 2000). Nevertheless, he will continue to rely on the corpus of the Greek sources made available in Dead, the previous centuries, not only in the trivial sense of the access they provided to the Greek thought for Teaching an Arabic readership, but also in the less evident sense of the philosophical agenda set by Dead Essay the thinkers who assimilated the Greek heritage. Together with the Teaching, meticulous exegesis of the text of Aristotle, the ideal of carrying on Essay the search for the lore and uae womens science of the Ancients, taken as a whole, is a prominent feature of the philosophical circles of this era, apparent both in the production of collections like the Siwan al-hikma ( The Repository of Wisdom ) [124] and in the ideal of the attainment of Dead Sea Scrolls happiness through philosophy. The overriding objective of the Islamic humanists was to revive the ancient philosophic legacy as formative of mind and character. (…) The philosophers considered the ultimate aim of man to be happiness ( eudaimonia / sa‘ada ). Happiness, they thought, is achieved through the perfection of max huber virtue, preeminently by the exercise of reason. Attainment of this happiness, or perfection, was said to be something divine, as Aristotle had stated in the Nicomachean Ethics . They depicted this attainment in noetic terms, as the Essay, conjoining of metal reactions man's (particular) intellect with the divine (universal) intellect. The end of Dead man was conceived as being his self-realization as a god-like being—we may say his ‘deification’. By rising above the perturbations of sense and the disquiet of the emotions to the serene realm of the intellect and the divine, the philosophical man escapes worldly anxiety ( qalaq ) and we are more alike reaches tranquillity ( sakina ). (Kraemer 1992, 6 and 19) The attitude to the search for Dead happiness in the intellectual life and to rely on the heritage of the Ancients as a guidance in search of the “science of the things in their truth, ‘ilm al-ashya’i bi-haqa’iqiha ” and personal achievement bridges the we are, gap between the beginnings of falsafa in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, the age of al-Kindi and the developments of the Muslim West, when Averroes would conceive his project of commenting upon the Aristotelian corpus (Endress 1998; 2004). DPhA = Dictionnaire des Philosophes Antiques , publié sous la direction de R. Goulet avec une préface de P. Hadot, CNRS Editions, Paris 1989 (vol. I); III, 2000; 2003 (Supplément]; IV (2005); Va (2012); Vb (2012). EI 2 = Encyclopédie de l’Islam . Nouvelle édition, Brill, Leiden, Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris, various dates. EMPh = H. Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy. 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The Case Against Affirmative Action. In this essay I set forth nine arguments against Strong Affirmative Action, which I define as preferential treatment, discriminating in favor of members of under-represented groups, which have been treated unjustly in the past, against innocent people. I distinguish this from Weak Affirmative Action, which simply seeks to promote equal opportunity to Dead the goods and offices of a society. I do not argue against this policy. I argue against Strong Affirmative Action, attempting to show that two wrongs don’t make a right. This form of max huber, Affirmative Action, as it is applied against White males, is both racist and sexist. Hardly a week goes by but that the subject of Affirmative Action does not come up. Whether in the form of preferential hiring, non-traditional casting, quotas, "goals and time tables," minority scholarships, race-norming, reverse discrimination, or employment of Essay, members of underutilized groups, the issue confronts us as a terribly perplexing problem. Affirmative action was one of the issues that divided the Democratic and Republican parties during the 1996 election, the alike, Democrats supporting it ("Mend it don’t end it") and Dead Sea Scrolls, the Republicans opposing it ("affirmative action is reverse racism"). During the last general election (November 7, 1996) California voters by a 55% to 45% vote approved Proposition 209 (called the "California Civil Rights Initiative") which made it illegal to discriminate on the basis of race or gender, hence ending Affirmative Action in max huber, public institutions in California. The Supreme Court recently refused to Sea Scrolls Essay rule on the appeal, thus leaving it to the individual states to decide how they will deal with this issue. Both sides have reorganized for a renewed battle. At the same time, the European Union’s High Court of Justice in the life of galileo, Luxembourg has recently approved Affirmative Action programs giving women preferential treatment in the 15 European Union countries (Nov. Essay! 11, 1997). Let us agree that despite the evidences of uae womens, a booming economy, the poor are suffering grievously, with children being born into desperate material and psychological poverty, for Sea Scrolls Essay whom the ideal of "equal opportunity for all" is a cruel joke. The Life Of Galileo! Many feel that the federal government has abandoned its guarantee to provide the minimum necessities for Sea Scrolls each American, so that the pace of my friends, this tragedy that seems to be worsening daily. Add to this, the fact that in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, our country African-Americans have a legacy of slavery and metal reactions, unjust discrimination to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay contend with, and we have the more my friends, makings of an inferno, and, perhaps, in the worse case scenario, the downfall of Dead Sea Scrolls, a nation. What is the answer to our national problem? Is it increased welfare? more job training? more support for Essay education? required licencing of parents to have children? negative income tax? more support for families or for Sea Scrolls mothers with small children? All of these have merit and should be part of the metal reactions, national debate. But, my thesis is, however tragic the situation may be (and we may disagree on just how tragic it is), one policy is not a legitimate part of the solution and that is reverse, unjust discrimination against young white males. Strong Affirmative Action, which implicitly advocates reverse discrimination, while, no doubt, well intentioned, is Sea Scrolls Essay, morally heinous, asserting, by ancient roman empire, implication, that two wrongs make a right. The Two Wrongs Make a Right Thesis goes like this: Because some Whites once enslaved some Blacks, the decedents of Sea Scrolls, those slaves, some of ancient empire symbol, whom may now enjoy high incomes and Essay, social status, have a right to opportunities and offices over better qualified Whites who had nothing to max huber do with either slavery or the oppression of Sea Scrolls, Blacks, and who may even have suffered hardship comparable to that of poor Blacks. In addition, Strong Affirmative Action creates a new Hierarchy of the Oppressed: Blacks get primary preferential treatment, women second, Native Americans third, Hispanics fourth, Handicapped fifth, and Asians sixth and so on until White males, no matter how needy or well qualified, must accept the max huber, left-overs. Naturally, combinations of oppressed classes (e.g., a one eyed, Black Hispanic female) trump all single classifications. The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment becomes reinterpreted as "Equal protection for all equals, but some equals are more equal than others." Before analyzing arguments concerning Affirmative Action, I must define my terms. By Weak Affirmative Action I mean policies that will increase the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, opportunities of disadvantaged people to attain social goods and offices. It includes the dismantling of segregated institutions, widespread advertisement to Effective groups not previously represented in certain privileged positions, special scholarships for the disadvantaged classes (e.g., the poor, regardless of race or gender), and even using diversity or under representation of groups or history of past discrimination as a tie breaker when candidates for these goods and offices are relatively equal. The goal of Weak Affirmative Action is equal opportunity to compete, not equal results. We seek to provide each citizen regardless of Sea Scrolls, race or gender a fair chance to max huber the most favored positions in society. There is no more moral requirement to Essay guarantee that 12% of professors are Black than to guarantee that 85% of the players in the National Basketball Association are White. By Strong Affirmative Action I mean preferential treatment on the basis of race, ethnicity or gender (or some other morally irrelevant criterion), discriminating in favor of under-represented groups against over-represented groups, aiming at roughly equal results. Strong Affirmative Action is reverse discrimination. It says it is right to do wrong to correct a wrong. It is the the life of galileo, policy that is Essay, currently being promoted under the ancient roman, name of Affirmative Action, so it I will use that term or "AA" for Dead Sea Scrolls Essay short throughout this essay to stand for uae womens this version of Sea Scrolls Essay, affirmative action. I will not argue for or against ancient empire symbol, the principle of Weak Affirmative Action. Indeed, I think it has some moral weight. Strong Affirmative Action has none, or so I will argue. In what follows I will mainly concentrate on Affirmative Action policies with regard to race, but the arguments can be extended to Sea Scrolls cover ethnicity and gender. Of Galileo! I think that if a case for Affirmative Action can be made it will be as a corrective to racial oppression. I will examine nine arguments regarding Affirmative Action. Sea Scrolls Essay! The first six will be negative, attempting to show that the best arguments for Affirmative Action fail. Metal Reactions! The last three will be positive arguments for policies opposing Affirmative Action: I. Dead Sea Scrolls! A Critique of Arguments For Affirmative Action. 1. Metal Reactions! The Need for Role Models. This argument is straightforward. We all have need of role models, and Dead Sea Scrolls, it helps to know that others like us can be successful. Metal Reactions! We learn and Sea Scrolls Essay, are encouraged to Teaching Essay strive for excellence by Dead Essay, emulating our heroes and the life of galileo, "our kind of Sea Scrolls Essay, people" who have succeeded. In the first place it’s not clear that role models of one’s own racial or sexual type are necessary (let alone sufficient) for success. One of my heroes was Gandhi, an Indian Hindu, another was my grade school science teacher, Miss DeVoe, and another Martin Luther King, behind whom I marched in Civil Rights demonstrations. More important than having role models of one’s "own type" is having genuinely good people, of Effective Teaching, whatever race or gender, to Sea Scrolls Essay emulate. Our common humanity should be a sufficient basis for us to see the possibility of success in people of max huber, virtue and merit. To yield to Dead the demand, however tempting it may be to do so, for "role-models-just-like-us" is to treat people like means not ends. It is to elevate morally irrelevant particularity over relevant traits, such as ability and integrity. We don’t need people exactly like us to find inspiration. Ancient Empire Symbol! As Steve Allen once quipped, "If I had to follow a role model exactly, I would have become a nun." Furthermore, even if it is of some help to people with low self-esteem to gain encouragement from seeing others of their particular kind in Sea Scrolls Essay, successful positions, it is doubtful whether this need is a sufficient reason to justify preferential hiring or reverse discrimination. What good is Effective Teaching, a role model who is inferior to other professors or physicians or business personnel? The best way to create role models is not to promote people because of race or gender but because they are the best qualified for the job. It is the violation of this fact that is largely responsible for the widespread whisper in Essay, the medical field (at least in New York) "Never go to a Black physician under 40" (referring to the fact that AA has affected the medical system during the past twenty years). The Life Of Galileo! Fight the feeling how I will, I cannot help wondering on seeing a Black or woman in a position or honor, "Is she in this position because she merits it or because of Affirmative Action?" Where Affirmative Action is the policy, the "figment of Sea Scrolls Essay, pigment" creates a stigma of undeservedness, whether or not it is deserved.1. Finally, entertain this thought experiment. Suppose we discovered that tall handsome white males somehow made the best role models for the most people, especially poor people. Suppose even large numbers of minority people somehow found inspiration in their sight. Effective Teaching! Would we be justified in hiring tall handsome white males over better qualified short Hispanic women, who were deemed less role-model worthy?2. 2. The Compensation Argument. The argument goes like this: blacks have been wronged and severely harmed by whites. Therefore white society should compensate blacks for the injury caused them. Reverse discrimination in Sea Scrolls, terms of preferential hiring, contracts, and scholarships is uae womens, a fitting way to compensate for the past wrongs.3. This argument actually involves a distorted notion of compensation. Normally, we think of Dead Essay, compensation as owed by a specific person A to another person B whom A has wronged in a specific way C. For example, if I have stolen your car and used it for of galileo a period of time to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay make business profits that would have gone to you, it is not enough that I return your car. I must pay you an amount reflecting your loss and the life, my ability to Dead Essay pay. We Are Alike! If I have only Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, made $5,000 and only have $10,000 in assets, it would not be possible for Effective Teaching you to collect $20,000 in damages - even though that is the amount of loss you have incurred. Sometimes compensation is Dead, extended to groups of people who have been unjustly harmed by more alike, the greater society. For example, the Dead Sea Scrolls, United States government has compensated the Japanese-Americans who were interred during the of galileo, Second World War, and the West German government has paid reparations to the survivors of Nazi concentration camps. But here a specific people have been identified who were wronged in an identifiable way by the government of the nation in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, question. On the face of the life of galileo, it, demands by blacks for compensation does not fit the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, usual pattern. Perhaps Southern States with Jim Crow laws could be accused of the life of galileo, unjustly harming blacks, but it is Essay, hard to see that the United States government was involved in doing so. Much of the harm done to blacks was the result of metal reactions, private discrimination, not state action. So the Germany/US analogy doesn’t hold. Furthermore, it is Dead Sea Scrolls, not clear that all blacks were harmed in the same way or whether some were unjustly harmed or harmed more than poor whites and others (e.g. short people). Finally, even if identifiable blacks were harmed by identifiable social practices, it is not clear that most forms of Affirmative Action are appropriate to restore the situation. The usual practice of a financial payment seems more appropriate than giving a high level job to someone unqualified or only minimally qualified, who, speculatively, might have been better qualified had he not been subject to racial discrimination. If John is the star tailback of the life, our college team with a promising professional future, and I accidentally (but culpably) drive my pick-up truck over his legs, and so cripple him, John may be due compensation, but he is not due the tailback spot on the football team. Still, there may be something intuitively compelling about compensating members of an oppressed group who are minimally qualified. Suppose that the Hatfields and the McCoys are enemy clans and some youths from the Hatfields go over and steal diamonds and gold from the McCoys, distributing it within the Hatfield economy. Even though we do not know which Hatfield youths did the Dead Sea Scrolls, stealing, we would want to restore the wealth, as far as possible, to Effective Teaching Essay the McCoys. One way might be to tax the Hatfields, but another might be to give preferential treatment in Dead Essay, terms of scholarships and the life of galileo, training programs and hiring to the McCoys. This is perhaps the strongest argument for Affirmative Action, and it may well justify some weaker versions of AA, but it is doubtful whether it is sufficient to justify strong versions with quotas and goals and time tables in skilled positions. There are at least two reasons for this. First, we have no way of knowing how many people of any given group would have achieved some given level of competence had the world been different. Dead Essay! This is especially relevant if my objections to the Equal Results Argument (#3 above) are correct. Secondly, the normal criterion of Teaching, competence is a strong prima facie consideration when the most important positions are at stake. There are three reasons for Sea Scrolls this: (1) treating people according to their merits respects them as persons, as ends in themselves, rather than as means to empire social ends (if we believe that individuals possess a dignity which deserves to be respected, then we ought to Dead Sea Scrolls treat that individual on the basis of his or her merits, not as a mere instrument for social policy); (2) society has given people expectations that if they attain certain levels of excellence they will be awarded appropriately and (3) filling the most important positions with the best qualified is the best way to insure efficiency in job-related areas and in society in general. These reasons are not absolutes. They can be overridden.4 But there is uae womens, a strong presumption in Sea Scrolls, their favor so that a burden of metal reactions, proof rests with those who would override them. At this point we get into the problem of whether innocent non-blacks should have to pay a penalty in terms of Sea Scrolls Essay, preferential hiring of blacks. Metal Reactions! We turn to that argument. 3. The Argument for Compensation from Sea Scrolls Essay, Those who Innocently Benefitted from Past Injustice. Young White males as innocent beneficiaries of unjust discrimination of empire symbol, blacks and women have no grounds for complaint when society seeks to level the Essay, tilted field. They may be innocent of oppressing blacks, other minorities, and women, but they have unjustly benefitted from that oppression or discrimination. So it is perfectly proper that less qualified women and max huber, blacks be hired before them. The operative principle is: He who knowingly and willingly benefits from a wrong must help pay for the wrong. Judith Jarvis Thomson puts it this way. Dead Sea Scrolls Essay! "Many [white males] have been direct beneficiaries of policies which have down-graded blacks and women. and even those who did not directly benefit. had, at Effective Teaching any rate, the Sea Scrolls, advantage in we are, the competition which comes of the confidence in one's full membership [in the community], and of one's right being recognized as a matter of course."5 That is, white males obtain advantages in self respect and self-confidence deriving from a racist/sexist system which denies these to blacks and women. Here is my response to this argument: As I noted in the previous section, compensation is normally individual and specific. If A harms B regarding x, B has a right to compensation from A in regards to x. If A steals B's car and wrecks it, A has an obligation to compensate B for the stolen car, but A's son has no obligation to compensate B. Essay! Furthermore, if A dies or disappears, B has no moral right to uae womens claim that society compensate him for the stolen car - though if he has insurance, he can make such a claim to the insurance company. Sometimes a wrong cannot be compensated, and we just have to make the Sea Scrolls, best of an imperfect world. Suppose my parents, divining that I would grow up to have an unsurpassable desire to be a basketball player, bought an expensive growth hormone for me. Unfortunately, a neighbor stole it and metal reactions, gave it to little Michael, who gained the extra 13 inches - my 13 inches - and shot up to an enviable 6 feet 6 inches. Michael, better known as Michael Jordan, would have been a runt like me but for his luck. As it is he profited from the injustice, and excelled in basketball, as I would have done had I had my proper dose. Do I have a right to the millions of dollars that Jordan made as a professional basketball player - the unjustly innocent beneficiary of my growth hormone? I have a right to something from the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, neighbor who stole the hormone, and it might be kind of Jordan to give me free tickets to the Bull’s basketball games, and perhaps I should be remembered in his will. Ancient Empire! As far as I can see, however, he does not owe me anything, either legally or morally. Suppose further that Michael Jordan and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, I are in high school together and Teaching Essay, we are both qualified to play basketball, only he is far better than I. Do I deserve to start in his position because I would have been as good as he is had someone not cheated me as a child? Again, I think not. But if being the lucky beneficiary of wrong-doing does not entail that Jordan (or the coach) owes me anything in regards to Sea Scrolls Essay basketball, why should it be a reason to max huber engage in preferential hiring in academic positions or highly coveted jobs? If minimal qualifications are not adequate to override excellence in basketball, even when the Dead, minimality is a consequence of wrongdoing, why should they be adequate in of galileo, other areas? 4. The Diversity Argument. It is Sea Scrolls Essay, important that we learn to live in a pluralistic world, learning to get along with those of other races and cultures, so we should have fully integrated schools and employment situations. Roman! We live in a shrinking world and need to appreciate each other’s culture and specific way of looking at life. Dead Sea Scrolls! Diversity is an important symbol and educative device. As Barbara Bergmann argues, "Diversity has positive value in many situations, but in some its value is crucial. To give an obvious example, a racially diverse community needs a racially diverse police force if the metal reactions, police are to Sea Scrolls gain the trust of all parts of the community and if one part of the max huber, community is not to feel dominated by the other part."6 Thus preferential treatment is warranted to perform this role in Sea Scrolls Essay, society. Once again, there is some truth in these concerns. Diversity of uae womens, ideas challenges us to Dead scrutinize our own values and beliefs, and diverse customs have aesthetic and moral value, helping us to uae womens appreciate the novelty and beauty in life. Diversity may expand our moral horizons. But, again, while we can admit the value of diversity, it hardly seems adequate to override the moral requirement to treat each person with equal respect. Diversity for Sea Scrolls diversity's sake is we are more my friends, moral promiscuity, since it obfuscates rational distinctions, undermines treating individuals as ends, treating them, instead as mere means (to the Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, goals of social engineering), and, furthermore, unless those hired are highly qualified, the diversity factor threatens to become a fetish. We Are Alike! At least at the higher levels of business and the professions, competence far outweighs considerations of diversity. I do not care whether the group of surgeons operating on me reflect racial or gender balance, but I do care that they are highly qualified. Neither do most football or basketball fans care whether their team reflects ethnic and gender diversity, but whether they are the best combination of players available. And likewise with airplane pilots, military leaders, business executives, and, may I say it, teachers and Essay, university professors.. Metal Reactions! One need not be a white male to teach, let alone, appreciate Shakespeare, nor need one be Black to teach, let alone appreciate, Alice Walker’s Color Purple. There may be times when diversity may seem to be "crucial" to the well-being of a diverse community, such as a diverse police force. Suppose that White policemen overreact to young Black males and the latter group distrust White policemen. Hiring more less qualified Black policemen, who would relate better to these youth, may have overall utilitarian value. But such a move, while we might make it as a lesser evil, could have serious consequences in allowing the demographic prejudices to dictate social policy. A better strategy would be to hire the best police, that is, those who can perform in disciplined, intelligent manner, regardless of their race. A White policeman must be able to arrest a Black burglar, even as a Black policeman must be able to arrest a White rapist. The quality of the police man or woman, not their race or gender is what counts. On the other hand, if the Sea Scrolls Essay, Black policeman, though lacking formal skills of the White policeman, really is able to do a better job in max huber, the Black community, this might constitute a case of Essay, merit, not Affirmative Action. This is roman, similar to the legitimacy of hiring Chinese men to act as undercover agents in Chinatown.7. 5. The Equal Results Argument. Some philosophers and social scientists hold that human nature is roughly identical, so that on a fair playing field the same proportion from every race and ethnic group and both genders would attain to the highest positions in every area of endeavor. It would follow that any inequality of results itself is evidence for inequality of opportunity. History is important when considering governmental rules like Test 21 because low scores by blacks can be traced in large measure to the legacy of slavery and racism: segregation, poor schooling, exclusion from Sea Scrolls, trade unions, malnutrition, and poverty have all played their roles. Unless one assumes that blacks are naturally less able to pass the test, the my friends, conclusion must be that the results are themselves socially and legally constructed, not a mere given for which law and society can claim no responsibility. The conclusion seems to Dead be that genuine equality eventually requires equal results. Obviously blacks have been treated unequally throughout US history, and just as obviously the economic and psychological effects of ancient empire symbol, that inequality linger to this day, showing up in Sea Scrolls, lower income and poorer performance in school and on tests than whites achieve. Since we have no reason to metal reactions believe that differences in performance can be explained by factors other than history, equal results are a good benchmark by Dead Essay, which to measure progress made toward genuine equality (John Arthur, The Unfinished Constitution (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1990), p. The Life! 238.). Sterling Harwood seems to support a similar theory when he writes, "When will [AA] end? When will affirmative action stop compensating blacks? As soon as the unfair advantage is gone, affirmative action will stop. Sea Scrolls! The elimination of the unfair advantage can be determined by Teaching, showing that the percentage of blacks hired and admitted at least roughly equaled the percentage of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, blacks in the population."8. Albert G. Metal Reactions! Mosley develops a similar argument. "Establishing Blacks’ presence at a level commensurate with their proportion in the relevant labor market need not be seen as an attempt to actualize some valid prediction. Rather, given the impossibility of determining what level of representation Blacks would have achieved were it not for racial discrimination, the Dead, assumption of proportional representation is the only fair assumption to make. This is not to roman empire argue that Blacks should be maintained in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, such positions, but their contrived exclusion merits equally contrived rectification."9 The result of a just society should be equal numbers in proportion to each group in the work force. However, Arthur, Mosley, and Harwood fail even to consider studies that suggest that there are innate differences between races, sexes, and groups. Effective Teaching! If there are genetic differences in intelligence and temperament within families, why should we not expect such differences between racial groups and the two genders? Why should the Dead Essay, evidence for this be completely discounted? Mosley’s reasoning is as follows: Since we don’t know for certain whether groups proportionately differ in talent, we should presume that they are equal in every respect. Metal Reactions! So we should presume that if we were living in a just society, there would be roughly proportionate representation in every field (e.g., equal representation of Dead Essay, doctors, lawyers, professors, carpenters, air-plane pilots, basketball players, and criminals). Hence, it is only fair - productive of justice - to Teaching aim at proportionate representation in these fields. But the logic is flawed. Sea Scrolls! Under a situation of ignorance we should not presume equality or inequality of representation - but conclude that we don’t know what the results would be in a just society. Metal Reactions! Ignorance doesn’t favor equal group representation any more than it favors unequal group representation. It is neutral between them. Consider this analogy. Suppose that you were the owner of a National Basketball Association team. Suppose that I and other frustrated White basketball players bring a class-action suit against you and all the other owners, claiming that you have subtly and systematically discriminate against White and Asian basketball players who make up less than 20% of the NBA players. When you respond to Essay our charges that you and your owners are just responding to individual merit, we respond that the discrimination is a function of deep prejudice against White athletes, especially basketball players, who are discouraged in every way from competing on fair terms with Blacks who dominate the NBA. Metal Reactions! You would probably wish that the matter of unequal results was not brought up in the first place, but once it has been, would you not be in your rights to defend yourself by Sea Scrolls Essay, producing evidence, showing that average physiological differences exist between Blacks and Whites and Asians, so that we should not presume unjust discrimination? Similarly, the proponents of the doctrine of equal results open the door to a debate over average ability in ethnic, racial and gender groups. Effective Teaching! The proponent of equal or fair opportunity would just as soon down play this feature in favor of judging people as individuals by Sea Scrolls Essay, their merit (hard though that may be). But if the proponent of AA insists on the Equal Results Thesis, we are obliged to examine the Equal Abilities Thesis, on which it is max huber, based - the thesis that various ethnic and Essay, gender groups all have the same distribution of talent on the relevant characteristic. With regard to cognitive skills we must consult the best evidence we have on average group differences. Uae Womens! We need to compare average IQ scores, SAT scores, standard personality testing, success in academic and professional areas and the like. If the evidence shows that group differences are nonexistent, the AA proponent may win, but if the evidence turns out to be against the Equal Abilities Thesis, the AA proponent loses. Consider for a start that the average white and Essay, Asian scores 195 points higher on the SAT tests and that on virtually all IQ tests for the past seven or eight decades the average Black IQ is 85 as opposed to the average White and Asian IQ at over 100, or that males and females differ significantly on cognitive ability tests. Females out perform males in reading comprehension, perceptual speed, and associative memory (ratios of 1.4 to 2.2), but males typically outnumbering females among high scoring individuals in mathematics, science and metal reactions, social science (by a ratio of 7.0 in the top 1% of overall mathematics distribution).10 The results of Essay, average GRE, LSAT, MCAT scores show similar pattens or significant average racial difference. The Black scholar Glenn Loury notes, "In 1990 black high school seniors from families with annual incomes of $70,000 or more scored an average of 855 on the SAT, compared with average scores of 855 and metal reactions, 879 respectively for Asian-American and white seniors whose families had incomes between $10,000 and 20,000 per year."11 Note, we are speaking about Dead Sea Scrolls Essay statistical averages. There are brilliant and metal reactions, retarded people in each group. When such statistics are discussed many people feel uncomfortable and want to drop the subject. Perhaps these statistics are misleading, but then we need to look carefully at the total evidence. The proponent of equal opportunity would urges us to get beyond racial and gender criteria in assignment of offices and opportunities and treat each person, not as an Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, average white or Black or female or male, but as a person judge on his or her own merits. Furthermore, on the logic of Mosley and company, we should take aggressive AA against Asians and Jews since they are over-represented in science, technology, and medicine, and we should presume that Asians and Jews are no more talented than average. Uae Womens! So that each group receives its fair share, we should ensure that 12% of the philosophers in the United States are Black, reduce the Dead Sea Scrolls, percentage of Jews from an the life of galileo, estimated 15% to 2% - firing about 1,300 Jewish philosophers. The fact that Asians are producing 50% of Ph Ds in science and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, math in this country and blacks less than 1% clearly shows, on this reasoning, that we are providing special secret advantages to of galileo Asians. By this logic, we should reduce the Dead Essay, quota of Blacks in the NBA to 12%. But why does society have to enter into the life of galileo, this results game in the first place? Why do we have to decide whether all difference is environmental or genetic? Perhaps we should simply admit that we lack sufficient evidence to pronounce on these issues with any certainty - but if so, should we not be more modest in Dead Sea Scrolls, insisting on equal results? Here's a thought experiment. Take two families of different racial groups, Green and Blue. The Greens decide to the life of galileo have only Dead, two children, to max huber spend all their resources on them, and to give them the best education. The two Green kids respond well and end up with achievement test scores in the 99th percentile. Dead Sea Scrolls! The Blues fail to more my friends practice family planning and have 15 children. They can only afford 2 children, but lack of ability or whatever prevents them from Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, keeping their family size down. Now they need help for Effective their large family. Why does society have to Dead Sea Scrolls Essay step in and help them? Society did not force them to have 15 children. Suppose that the achievement test scores of the 15 children fall below the 25th percentile. They cannot compete with the Greens. But now enters AA. It says that it is society's fault that the Blue children are not as able as the the life of galileo, Greens and that the Greens must pay extra taxes to enable the Blues to compete. No restraints are put on Sea Scrolls, the Blues regarding family size. This seems unfair to the Greens. Should the Green children be made to bear responsibility for the consequences of the Blues' voluntary behavior?12. My point is simply that philosophers like Arthur, Harwood, and Mosley need to cast their net wider and recognize that demographics and childbearing and Essay, -rearing practices are crucial factors in achievement. People have to take some responsibility for their actions. Dead Essay! The equal results argument (or axiom) misses a greater part of the picture. 6. The "No One Deserves His Talents" Argument Against Meritocracy. According to this argument, the competent do not deserve their intelligence, their superior character, their industriousness, or their discipline; therefore they have no right to the best positions in society; therefore it is not unjust to give these positions to less (but still minimally) qualified blacks and women. In one form this argument holds that since no one deserves anything, society may use any criteria it pleases to distribute goods. The criterion most often designated is the life, social utility. Versions of this argument are found in Essay, the writings of John Arthur, John Rawls, Bernard Boxill, Michael Kinsley, Ronald Dworkin, and metal reactions, Richard Wasserstrom. Rawls writes, "No one deserves his place in the distribution of native endowments, any more than one deserves one's initial starting place in Dead Essay, society. The assertion that a man deserves the ancient, superior character that enables him to make the Sea Scrolls Essay, effort to cultivate his abilities is equally problematic; for his character depends in large part upon fortunate family and social circumstances for which he can claim no credit. The notion of desert seems not to apply to these cases."13 Michael Kinsley is even more adamant: Opponents of affirmative action are hung up on a distinction that seems more profoundly irrelevant: treating individuals versus treating groups. What is the Effective Teaching Essay, moral difference between dispensing favors to people on their "merits" as individuals and passing out Sea Scrolls Essay, society's benefits on the basis of group identification? Group identifications like race and sex are, of course, immutable. They have nothing to do with a person's moral worth. But the metal reactions, same is true of Essay, most of what comes under the label "merit." The tools you need for getting ahead in a meritocratic society - not all of them but most: talent, education, instilled cultural values such as ambition - are distributed just as arbitrarily as skin color. They are fate. The notion that people somehow "deserve" the advantages of these characteristics in a way they don't "deserve" the advantage of their race is powerful, but illogical.14. It will help to put the argument in outline form. 1. Society may award jobs and positions as it sees fit as long as individuals have no claim to the life of galileo these positions. 2. Sea Scrolls! To have a claim to something means that one has earned it or deserves it. 3. But no one has earned or deserves his intelligence, talent, education or cultural values which produce superior qualifications. 4. If a person does not deserve what produces something, he does not deserve its products. 5. Therefore better qualified people do not deserve their qualifications. 6. Therefore, society may override their qualifications in awarding jobs and positions as it sees fit (for social utility or to compensate for previous wrongs). So it is permissible if a minimally qualified black or woman is admitted to law or medical school ahead of a white male with excellent credentials or if a less qualified person from an "underutilized" group gets a professorship ahead of an eminently better qualified white male. Sufficiency and ancient roman empire, underutilization together outweigh excellence. My response: Premise 4 is false. To see this, reflect that just because I do not deserve the money that I have been given as a gift (for instance) does not mean that I am not entitled to what I get with that money. If you and I both get a gift of $100 and I bury mine in the sand for Dead 5 years while you invest yours wisely and double its value at the end of five years, I cannot complain that you should split the increase 50/50 since neither of us deserved the original gift. If we accept the notion of responsibility at all, we must hold that persons deserve the fruits of their labor and roman symbol, conscious choices. Dead! Of course, we might want to distinguish moral from legal desert and argue that, morally speaking, effort is more important than outcome, whereas, legally speaking, outcome may be more important. Nevertheless, there are good reasons in terms of efficiency, motivation, and rough justice for holding a strong prima facie principle of giving scarce high positions to those most competent. The attack on roman empire, moral desert is perhaps the most radical move that egalitarians like Rawls and company have made against meritocracy, and the ramifications of their attack are far reaching. Here are some implications: Since I do not deserve my two good eyes or two good kidneys, the social engineers may take one of Essay, each from me to give to those needing an eye or a kidney - even if they have damaged their organs by their own voluntary actions; Since no one deserves anything, we do not deserve pay for our labors or praise for a job well done or first prize in the race we win. Max Huber! The notion of moral responsibility vanishes in a system of levelling. But there is no good reason to Dead Sea Scrolls accept the argument against desert. We do act freely and, as such, we are responsible for our actions. We deserve the fruits of our labor, reward for our noble feats and more, punishment for our misbehavior.15. We have considered seven arguments for Affirmative Action and Sea Scrolls Essay, have found no compelling case for Strong AA and only one plausible argument (a version of the compensation argument) for Weak AA. We must now turn to the arguments against Affirmative Action to see whether they fare any better. II. Arguments Against Affirmative Action. 7. Empire! Affirmative Action Requires Discrimination Against a Different Group. Weak Affirmative Action weakly discriminates against new minorities, mostly innocent young white males, and Strong Affirmative Action strongly discriminates against these new minorities. As I argued in I. Sea Scrolls! 4, this discrimination is unwarranted, since, even if some compensation to blacks were indicated, it would be unfair to make innocent white males bear the whole brunt of the payments. Recently I had this experience. I knew a brilliant philosopher, with outstanding publications in first level journals, who was having difficulty getting a tenure-track position. For the first time in ancient, my life I offered to make a phone call on Dead, his behalf to a university to which he had applied. When I got the Chair of the Search Committee, he offered that the committee was under instructions from the Administration to hire a woman or a Black. They had one of each on more, their short-list, so they weren’t even considering the applications of White males. At my urging he retrieved my friend’s file, and said, "This fellow looks far superior to Essay the two candidates we’re interviewing, but there’s nothing I can do about it." Cases like this come to my attention regularly. In fact, it is poor white youth who become the new pariahs on the job market. The children of the wealthy have no trouble getting into the best private grammar schools and, on the basis of superior early education, into the best universities, graduate schools, managerial and Teaching Essay, professional positions. Dead Sea Scrolls! Affirmative Action simply shifts injustice, setting Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians and women against young white males, especially ethnic and Effective Essay, poor white males. Sea Scrolls Essay! It makes no more sense to discriminate in favor of a rich Black or female who had the uae womens, opportunity of the best family and education available against a poor White, than it does to discriminate in Dead Sea Scrolls, favor of metal reactions, White males against Blacks or women. Essay! It does little to rectify the uae womens, goal of providing equal opportunity to all. At the end of Sea Scrolls Essay, his essay supporting Affirmative Action, Albert Mosley points out that other groups besides Blacks have been benefitted by Effective, Affirmative Action, "women, the Essay, disabled, the elderly."16 He’s correct in including the elderly, for uae womens through powerful lobbies, such as the AARP, they do get special benefits including medicare and may sue on the grounds of being discriminated against due to Dead Essay Agism, prejudice against older people. Might this not be a reason to reconsider Affirmative Action? Consider the sheer rough percentages of those who qualify for Affirmative Action programs. Effective Essay! GROUP PERCENTAGE. 4. Native Americans 2% 6. Physically Disabled 10% 7. Welfare recipients 6% 8. The Elderly 25% (est. Adults over 60) 9. Italians (in New York City) 3% The elderly can sue on the grounds of Dead Essay, Agism, receive entitlements in terms of Social Security and Medicare, and have the AARP lobbying on their behalf. Recently, it has been proposed that homosexuals be included in oppressed groups deserving Affirmative Action.17 At Northeastern University in 1996 the faculty governing body voted to grant homosexuals Affirmative Action status at this university. How many more percentage points would this add? Several authors have advocated putting all poor people on the list.18 And if we took handicaps seriously would we not add ugly people, obese people, and, especially, short people, for which there is the life of galileo, ample evidence of discrimination? How about left-handed people (about 9% of the population) - they can’t play short-stop of third base and have to put up with a right-handedly biased world. The only Sea Scrolls Essay, group not the list is metal reactions, that of Dead Sea Scrolls, White males. Roman Empire Symbol! Are they, especially healthy, middle class young White males, becoming the new "oppressed class"? Should we add them to our list? Respect for persons entails that we treat each person as an end in him or herself, not simply as a means to be used for social purposes. What is wrong about discrimination against Blacks is that it fails to treat Black people as individuals, judging them instead by their skin color not their merit. Dead Sea Scrolls! What is ancient, wrong about discrimination against women is that it fails to treat them as individuals, judging them by Dead Essay, their gender, not their merit. What is equally wrong about max huber Affirmative Action is that it fails to treat White males with dignity as individuals, judging them by both their race and gender, instead of their merit. Present Affirmative Action is both racist and sexist. 8. Affirmative Action Encourages Mediocrity and Incompetence. A few years ago Jesse Jackson joined protesters at Dead Sea Scrolls Harvard Law School in demanding that the Law School faculty hire black women. Empire Symbol! Jackson dismissed Dean of the Essay, Law School, Robert C. Clark's standard of we are my friends, choosing the best qualified person for the job as "Cultural anemia." "We cannot just define who is qualified in the most narrow vertical academic terms," he said. "Most people in the world are yellow, brown, black, poor, non-Christian and don't speak English, and they can't wait for some white males with archaic rules to appraise them."19 It might be noted that if Jackson is correct about the depth of cultural decadence at Harvard, blacks might be well advised to form and Sea Scrolls Essay, support their own more vital law schools and leave places like Harvard to ancient their archaism. At several universities, the administration has forced departments to hire members of minorities even when far superior candidates were available. Shortly after obtaining my Ph D in the late 70's I was mistakenly identified as a black philosopher (I had a civil rights record and was once a black studies major) and was flown to a major university, only to be rejected for a more qualified candidate when it discovered that I was white. Stories of the bad effects of Affirmative Action abound. The philosopher Sidney Hook writes that "At one Ivy League university, representatives of the Regional HEW demanded an explanation of why there were no women or minority students in the Graduate Department of Religious Studies. They were told that a reading of knowledge of Hebrew and Greek was presupposed. Dead! Whereupon the representatives of HEW advised orally: 'Then end those old fashioned programs that require irrelevant languages. And start up programs on relevant things which minority group students can study without learning languages.'"20. Nicholas Capaldi notes that the max huber, staff of HEW itself was one-half women, three-fifths members of Dead Essay, minorities, and one-half black - a clear case of racial over representation. In 1972 officials at uae womens Stanford University discovered a proposal for Dead Essay the government to monitor curriculum in higher education: the "Summary Statement. Uae Womens! Sex Discrimination Proposed HEW Regulation to Effectuate Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972" to "establish and use internal procedure for reviewing curricula, designed both to ensure that they do not reflect discrimination on the basis of sex and to Dead Sea Scrolls resolve complaints concerning allegations of such discrimination, pursuant to procedural standards to be prescribed by the life, the Director of the office of Civil Rights." Fortunately, Secretary of HEW Caspar Weinberger discovered the intrusion and assured Stanford University that he would never approve of it.21. Government programs of Sea Scrolls, enforced preferential treatment tend to appeal to the lowest possible common denominator. Witness the max huber, 1974 HEW Revised Order No. 14 on Affirmative Action expectations for preferential hiring: "Neither minorities nor female employees should be required to possess higher qualifications than those of the lowest qualified incumbents." Furthermore, no test may be given to candidates unless it is proved to be relevant to the job. No standard or criteria which have, by intent or effect, worked to exclude women or minorities as a class can be utilized, unless the institution can demonstrate the necessity of such standard to the performance of the job in question. Whenever a validity study is called for. the user should include . an investigation of suitable alternative selection procedures and suitable alternative methods of using the selection procedure which have as little adverse impact as possible . Whenever the user is shown an alternative selection procedure with evidence of less adverse impact and substantial evidence of validity for the same job in Dead Sea Scrolls, similar circumstances, the user should investigate it to determine the appropriateness of using or validating it in accord with these guidelines.22. At the same time Americans are wondering why standards in we are more alike, our country are falling and the Japanese and Koreans are getting ahead. Dead Sea Scrolls! Affirmative Action with its twin idols, Sufficiency and Diversity, is the enemy of excellence. Of Galileo! I will develop this thought in Sea Scrolls Essay, the next section. 9. Metal Reactions! An Argument from the Principle of Merit. Traditionally, we have believed that the Essay, highest positions in society should be awarded to those who are best qualified. The Koran states that "A ruler who appoints any man to an office, when there is in his dominion another man better qualified for it, sins against God and against the State". Rewarding excellence both seems just to we are more the individuals in the competition and makes for Dead Sea Scrolls efficiency. Note that one of the metal reactions, most successful acts of racial integration, the Brooklyn Dodger’s recruitment of Jackie Robinson in the late 40s, was done in just this way, according to merit. If Robinson had been brought into the major league as a mediocre player or had batted .200 he would have been scorned and sent back to the minors where he belonged. As I mentioned earlier, merit is not an absolute value, but there is are strong prima facie reasons for awarding positions on its basis, and it should enjoy a weighty presumption in our social practices. In a celebrated article Ronald Dworkin says that "Bakke had no case" because society did not owe Bakke anything. Sea Scrolls! That may be, but then why does it owe anyone anything? Dworkin puts the matter in Utility terms, but if that is the case, society may owe Bakke a place at the University of max huber, California/Davis, for it seems a reasonable rule-utilitarian principle that achievement should be rewarded in society. We generally want the best to have the best positions, the best qualified candidate to win the Dead Essay, political office, the most brilliant and competent scientist to be chosen for the most challenging research project, the best qualified pilots to become commercial pilots, only the best soldiers to max huber become generals. Only when little is at stake do we weaken the standards and content ourselves with sufficiency (rather than excellence) - there are plenty of jobs where "sufficiency" rather than excellence is required. Perhaps we have even come to feel that medicine or law or university professorships are so routine that they can be performed by minimally qualified people - in which case AA has a place. Note! no one is calling for quotas or proportional representation of underutilized groups in the National Basketball Association where blacks make up 80% of the players. But, surely, if merit and merit alone reigns in sports, should it not be valued at least as much in education and industry? The case for meritocracy has two pillars. One pillar is Dead, a deontological argument which holds that we ought to treat people as ends and ancient, not merely means. By giving people what they deserve as individuals, rather than as members of groups we show respect for Sea Scrolls their inherent worth. If you and I take a test, and you get 95% of the answers correct and I only get 50% correct, it would be unfair to we are alike you to give both of us the same grade, say an A, and even more unfair to give me a higher grade A+ than your B+. Although I have heard cases where teachers have been instructed to Sea Scrolls "race norm" in grading (giving Blacks and Hispanics higher grades for the same numerical scores), most proponents of Affirmative Action stop short of advocating such a practice. But, I would ask them, what’s really the difference between taking the overall average of a White and a Black and ancient roman empire, "race norming" it? If teachers shouldn’t do it, why should administrators? The second pillar for meritocracy is utilitarian. In the end, we will be better off by honoring excellence. We want the best leaders, teachers, policemen, physicians, generals, lawyers, and airplane pilots that we can possibly produce in society. So our program should be to promote equal opportunity, as much as is feasible in a free market economy, and reward people according to their individual merit. Let me sum up my discussion. The goal of the Civil Rights movement and of moral people everywhere has been justice for all, including equal opportunity. Sea Scrolls! The question is: how best to get there. Civil Rights legislation removed the legal barriers, opening the metal reactions, way towards equal opportunity, but it did not tackle the deeper causes that produce differential results. Weak Affirmative Action aims at encouraging minorities in striving for the highest positions without unduly jeopardizing the rights of Dead Essay, majorities. Ancient Roman! The problem of Weak Affirmative Action is that it easily slides into Strong Affirmative Action where quotas, "goals and Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, time-tables," "equal results,"--in a word--reverse discrimination prevails and forced onto metal reactions, groups, thus promoting mediocrity, inefficiency, and resentment. Furthermore, Affirmative Action aims at the higher levels of society - universities and skilled jobs, but if we want to improve our society, the best way to do it is to Dead Essay concentrate on families, children, early education, and the like, so all are prepared to avail themselves of opportunity. Affirmative Action, on the one hand, is too much, too soon and on the other hand, too little, too late. In addition to the arguments I have offered, Affirmative Action, rather than unite people of good will in the common cause of justice, tends to ancient roman symbol balkanize us into segregation-thinking. Professor Derrick Bell of Harvard Law School recently said that the African American Supreme Court Judge Clarence Thomas, in Sea Scrolls Essay, his opposition to Affirmative Action "doesn’t think black."23 Does Bell really claim that there is a standard and proper "Black" (and presumably a White) way of thinking? Ideologues like Bell, whether radical Blacks like himself, or Nazis who advocate "think Aryan," both represent the ancient roman empire symbol, same thing: cynicism about rational debate, the very antithesis of the quest for impartial truth and Dead Essay, justice. People who have believe in we are more, reason to Dead resolve our differences will oppose this kind of balkanization of the races. Martin Luther said that humanity is like a man mounting a horse who always tends to fall off on the other side of the horse. This seems to be the case with Affirmative Action. We Are More Alike My Friends! Attempting to redress the Sea Scrolls Essay, discriminatory iniquities of our history, our well-intentioned social engineers now engage in new forms of discriminatory iniquity and thereby think that they have successfully mounted the horse of the life of galileo, racial harmony. They have only fallen off on the other side of the issue.24. 1. Sea Scrolls Essay! This argument is related to max huber The Need of Breaking Stereotypes Argument. Society may simply need to Sea Scrolls Essay know that there are talented Blacks and women, so that it does not automatically assign them lesser respect or status. The right response is that hiring less qualified people is neither fair to those better qualified who are passed over more alike my friends nor an effective way to remove inaccurate stereotypes. If high competence is accepted as the criterion for hiring, then it is unjust to override it for purposes of social engineering. Furthermore, if Blacks and Dead Sea Scrolls, women are known to Teaching hold high positions simply because of Essay, reverse discrimination, they will still lack the respect due to those of their rank. 2. Stephen Kershnar suggested this point to me. 3. For a good discussion of this argument see Boxill, “The Morality of Reparation” in Social Theory and Practice 2:1 (1972) and Mosley, op. cit., pp. 23-27. 4. Merit sometimes may be justifiably overridden by need, as when parents choose to more spend extra earnings on special education for their disabled child rather than for their gifted child. Sometimes we may override merit for Sea Scrolls utilitarian purposes. E.g., suppose you are the best short stop on of galileo, a baseball team but are also the best catcher. You=d rather play short stop, but the manager decides to put you at catcher because, while your friend can do an adequate job at short, no one else is adequate at catcher. It=s permissible for you to be assigned the job of catcher. Probably, some expression of appreciation would be due you. 5. Judith Jarvis Thomson, “Preferential Hiring” in Marshall Cohen, Thomas Nagel and Thomas Scanlon eds, Equality and Preferential Treatment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977). 6. Barbara Bergmann, In Defense of Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, Affirmative Action (New York: Basic Books, 1996), pp. 9-10. 7. Stephen Kershnar pointed this out in written comments (Dec 22, 1997). 8. Effective Essay! Sterling Harwood, “The Justice of affirmative Action” in Yearger Hudson and C. Dead Sea Scrolls Essay! Peden, eds., The Bill of Rights” Bicentennial Reflections (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen). 9. Ancient Symbol! Albert G. Mosley and Nicholas Capaldi, “Affirmative Action; Social Justice or Unfair Preference?” (Rowman and Littlefield, 1996), p. 28. Bernard Boxill Blacks and Social Justice (Rowman & Littlefield, 1984), whom Mosley quotes in Sea Scrolls, his article, also defends this position. 10. Uae Womens! Larry Hedges and Amy Nowell, “Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals” Science vol. 269 (July 1995), pp. Dead Essay! 41-45. See Phillip E. Vernon=s summary of the literature in uae womens, Intelligence: Heredity and Environment (New York, 1979), Yves Christen, “Sex Differences in the Human Brain” in Nicholas Davidson (ed.) Gender Sanity (Rowman & Littlefield, 1989) and T. Bouchard, et. al., “Sources of Human Psychological Differences: The Minnesota Studies of twins Reared Apart” Science vol 250 (1990); Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve (New York: Free Press, 1994); and Michael E. Levin, Why Race Matters (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997) for support for the thesis of racial and gender differences. Although these matters are controversial, the evidence for average differences must be carefully considered before we accept the Dead Sea Scrolls, equal outcomes thesis. Arianna Stassinopoulos sums up a large body of research on gender difference this way: Men are less average than women. They are the geniuses and the idiots, the giants and ancient roman empire symbol, the dwarfs. Dead Sea Scrolls! The greater variability of ancient empire symbol, men cannot possibly be explained on environmental grounds, as a simple difference in Dead Sea Scrolls, averages might be. If women are not found in the top positions in society in the same proportions as men because, as Women=s Lib claims, they are treated as mentally inferior to men and become so, why are there so many more male idiots? Why are the remedial classes in metal reactions, schools full of boys? Why are the inmates of hospitals for Dead Essay the mentally subnormal predominantly male? The reason why Women=s Lib does not mention this conspicuous difference between the sexes is that it can only be explained on purely biological grounds (The Female Woman (Davis-Poynter, 1973) p. 28f). 11. Glen Loury, “Getting Involved” An Appeal for Greater Community Participation in the Public Schools,” Washington Post Education Review (August 6, 1995). Stephan and Abigail Thernstrom in America in Black and White (1997) offer the same statistics and add: Today=s typical twelfth-grader scores no better on a reading test than the average white in the eight grade, and is 5.4 years behind the typical white in metal reactions, science. blacks with a parent who graduated from college on average score below whites whose parents never finished high school. Essay! In a 1992 test of adult literacy and numeracy, the typical black college graduate performed only a shade better than the typical white high school graduate with no college, and max huber, far below the white college dropout” (P. 19). 12. Iddo Landau, “Are You Entitled to Sea Scrolls Affirmative Action” (Applied Philosophy vol. 11 (Winter/Spring 1997) and Richard Kahlenberg AClass Not Race” (The New Republic April 3, 1995) advocate affirmative action on the basis of class or low income, not race or gender. I think this is an improvement, depending on how it is of galileo, implemented, but it ignores family responsibility. 13. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 104; See Bernard Boxill, AThe Morality of Preferential Hiring” Philosophy and Public Affairs vol 7:3 (1983) part of which is reprinted above. 14. Michael Kinsley, “Equal Lack of Opportunity” Harper=s (June 1983). 15. My point does not depend on any particular theory of Dead Sea Scrolls, free will. One is reminded of Nozick=s point that Rawls= professed aim of articulating the enormous worth of each individual seems contrary to the reductive determinism in his natural lottery argument. 16. Albert Mosley, “Affirmative Action: Pro” in Albert Mosley and Nicholas Capaldi, Affirmative Action: Social Justice or Unfair Preference? (Rowman & Littlefield, 1997), p. 53. 17. J. Sartorelli, AThe Nature of max huber, Affirmative Action, Anti-Gay Oppression, and the Alleviation of Dead Essay, Enduring Harm” International Journal of metal reactions, Applied Philosophy (vol. 11. No. 2, 1997). 18. For example, Iddo Landau, “Are You Entitled to Affirmative Action?” International Journal of Applied Philosophy (vol. 11. Sea Scrolls! No. 2, 1997) and Richard Kahlenberg AClass Not Race” (The New Republic April 3, 1995). 19. New York Times May 10, 1990. 20. Quoted by Nicholas Capaldi, Out of the life, Order: Affirmative Action and the Crisis of Sea Scrolls, Doctrinaire Liberalism (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus, 1985). 21. Capaldi, Op. Of Galileo! Cit., p. 95. 22. Dead! Capaldi, Ibid. Michael Levin begins his book Feminism and Freedom (Transaction Press: 1987) with federal court case Beckman v NYFD in metal reactions, which 88 women who failed the New York City Fire Department's entrance exam in 1977 filed a class-action sex discrimination suit. The court found that the phys-ical strength component of the test was not job-related, and thus a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and ordered the city to Essay hire 49 of the women. It further ordered the fire department to devise a special, less-demanding physi-cal strength exam for women. Following EEOC guidelines if the passing rate for women is max huber, less than 80% that of the passing rate of men, the test is presumed invalid. 23. See L. Gordon Crovitz, “Borking Begins, but Mudballs Bounce Off Judge Thomas” The Wall Street Journal, July 17, 1991. Have you noticed the irony in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, this mudslinging at Judge Thomas? The same blacks and empire, whites who oppose Judge Thomas, as not the best person for Sea Scrolls Essay the job, are themselves the strongest proponents of Affirmative Action, which embraces the tenet that minimally qualified Blacks and women should get jobs over White males. 24. Some of the material in this essay appeared in max huber, “The Moral Status of Affirmative Action” Public Affairs Quarterly, vol 6:2 (1992). I have not had space to consider all the objections to my position or discuss the issue of freedom of Dead, association which, I think, should be given much scope in private but not in public institutions. Barbara Bergmann (op. Max Huber! cit., p. 122-25) and others argue that we already all preferential treatment for athletes and veterans, especially in Dead Sea Scrolls Essay, university admissions, so, being consistent, we should provide it for women and minorities? My answer is that I am against giving athletes scholarship, and I regard scholarships to metal reactions veterans as a part of Sea Scrolls Essay, a contractual relationship, a reward for service to one=s country. Uae Womens! But I distinguish entrance programs from actual employment. Dead Essay! I don't think that veterans should be afforded special privilege in Essay, hiring practices, unless it be as a tie breaker. I should also mention that my arguments from merit and respect apply more specifically to public institutions than private ones, where issues of property rights and freedom of association carry more weight. My gratitude to Wallace Matson, Bill Shaw, Stephen Kershnar, Jim Landesman, and Elliot Cohen for Sea Scrolls comments on earlier versions of this paper.