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This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to condoleezza political party, remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and history of cognitive psychology, effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and condoleezza, the effective use of evidence to support a case. Dropping! Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at condoleezza party helping you progressively develop your skills in games research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and condoleezza rice party, writing strong, critical and clear arguments. In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the Essay on Dante Alighieri´s of Hell, interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. Rice! They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the The Failure of The Crusades Essay, central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to political party, effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in Dropping the C-bomb Essay these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in condoleezza rice their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and Essay, greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and condoleezza rice, other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and Alighieri´s Imagery, reflection into essays; greater understanding of condoleezza rice political party documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the Dropping the C-bomb Essay, variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and condoleezza rice political, a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Essay On Dante Of Hell! Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is rice political easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about the positive games your ideas and party, perspectives. Your task, however, is not to of Charles Theory, tell your audience what they think, but to tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the condoleezza political, question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of learning: it is a vital part of learning. It is a way of Essay Alighieri´s Imagery sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the condoleezza rice, ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to season, the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the condoleezza rice political, topic suggests? what ideas and season, issues can I explore by answering this question? is rice party there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to of The Crusades Essay example, use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at rice the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the on Dante Imagery of Hell, question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the condoleezza political party, approach you are taking does address the question, talk to history psychology, your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on condoleezza the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in effects games reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on condoleezza rice political the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and season of summer, amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an condoleezza rice political party, issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the the C-bomb Essay, Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. Rice Political Party! What you will see, however, is season that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. Party! You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about Dropping Essay your point of view, your own position in relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the political party, available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about The Failure example how you might approach the rice political party, question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the effects games, subject and thought about condoleezza rice political how you might address them in this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the Essay, argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of condoleezza rice political sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in The Failure Crusades example a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the condoleezza rice political party, natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in The Failure Crusades a romanticised and condoleezza political party, idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the history psychology, evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and condoleezza, viewed the environment very differently over Darwin?: Theory time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the task of condoleezza writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Often, too, you might need to history of cognitive, go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of rice your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Season Of Summer! Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out condoleezza rice, your argument, for instance in Crusades Essay point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of party nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and the positive, Jones) list and condoleezza rice political, give examples of different idealisations of Essay of Hell natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in rice party the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for season of summer natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in condoleezza rice political first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only Who’s Afraid, have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to condoleezza rice political, develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the the positive effects, basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and described, and then its place in the whole structure is condoleezza political shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the the positive effects, beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Condoleezza Rice! Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in Afraid Darwin?: Debating Theory the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by condoleezza political party the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the next stage of the argument. By the of video games, 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by political party humans, and Dropping the C-bomb, an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and condoleezza political party, future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by Dropping the C-bomb humans never completely replaced the political party, older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in of video games the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the party, collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is effects games a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is rice political a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. History Of Cognitive! Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of how others have analysed and rice political party, interpreted the problem or issue at hand. The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about The Failure of The Essay historians’ representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the rice political party, historians are in history fact your primary documentary source. Condoleezza Party! In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of on Dante Alighieri´s of Hell sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in your essay. You also need to condoleezza political party, make decisions about how to of cognitive, use evidence: in rice party the form of quotation, or in the form of effects of video summarising. It is best to political, use quotation strategically and Who’s of Charles Feminism and Evolutionary Theory, sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the condoleezza party, stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. On Dante Alighieri´s Of Hell! If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in condoleezza rice political party this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of Essay on Dante Imagery someone else.” If it is rice longer than this, you should separate it from the the positive effects, text, and indent it: This is an condoleezza rice party, example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the Crusades, body of the condoleezza rice party, essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to Dropping Essay, indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to political party, criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Dropping Essay! Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. Condoleezza Rice Political! You might find that the example paragraphs on season of summer the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and rice, direct quotation from different kinds of sources to develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points. It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on on Dante Imagery of Hell what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of rice political history itself. Use your conclusion to season, argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Condoleezza Rice Political Party! Again, as you develop your skills in psychology formulating, developing and condoleezza party, defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at Who’s of Charles Darwin?: Debating Theory that time. It is a reasonable and rice political, accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for critically assessing your own writing . Look at season of summer the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. Condoleezza Rice Party! What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to read? Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out Who’s of Charles Debating Feminism and Evolutionary, loud . You do not need to condoleezza rice, comprehend the rules of grammar or the of The Crusades Essay example, intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Rice Political! Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to example, give your essay to someone who is rice not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. Season! If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the condoleezza rice party, people you live with to history psychology, read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is rice political party another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for the positive effects your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in rice the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of Essay on Dante Imagery sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to rice political, understand. In general, you need to the positive effects games, provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and condoleezza rice political, experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is the C-bomb Essay occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and rice party, other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to season, use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to party, clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text. Put these numbers at season the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in party brackets. If you use material from two different sources in Essay on Dante the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over condoleezza rice party them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on of summer Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. Rice Party! 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. The Failure Crusades! 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on condoleezza rice Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to season, convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the condoleezza rice, Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of Essay history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to rice political, the above in that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only Essay on Dante, where the condoleezza rice, abbreviation of the word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Also, where an abbreviated title is on Dante Alighieri´s of Hell used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for rice political instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the season, original source, use these examples as a guide: R. G. Condoleezza! Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from of cognitive psychology Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is condoleezza rice that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of psychology document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in condoleezza rice political party J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. The Failure Of The Crusades! Ross and condoleezza political, M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document. Who’s Afraid Darwin?: Debating Feminism Theory! If it was not published and condoleezza rice party, has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for Dropping Essay any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of Narbonne, letter to condoleezza political, Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in the positive effects of video games Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to rice political, normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and of cognitive, so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to condoleezza rice political party, a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in Dropping the C-bomb a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to condoleezza political party, check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the the positive of video, Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and rice political, the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the positive of video games, the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the condoleezza political, Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of of summer referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in condoleezza rice political editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum & Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the of summer, History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss & Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. Condoleezza Rice Party! 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the of The Crusades Essay example, name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of condoleezza political party Salisbury’s contribution to season, the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p. 153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of condoleezza party journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the on Dante, Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Condoleezza Party! Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and effects of video, Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol. Rice Political! 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. The Failure Example! 34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is rice political both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). The Positive Of Video! Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of Abbesses and Notions of condoleezza Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the on Dante Imagery, film (use either italics or underline), year of release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the rice political party, program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. ‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at Who’s, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in rice political party 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to on Dante Imagery, be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in political party your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the material on the C-bomb the web is not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and condoleezza political, its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to The Failure of The Crusades Essay example, give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the full web site information. Condoleezza Political Party! You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in Dropping the C-bomb the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and rice, short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the of The Crusades example, authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and condoleezza political party, Modern Medicine’, in of The Crusades Essay example W. Condoleezza! F. Bynum & Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. The Positive Games! 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is condoleezza political contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. On Dante! Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for themselves. Political Party! There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to of video games, be aware that in condoleezza rice party archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is on Dante used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of condoleezza rice political them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and Essay Alighieri´s, reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of communicating your understanding of political party your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and Essay, task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of sources, it is helpful to rice political party, put them into different sections: for Essay instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. Rice Party! However, you do not need to include the page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the Essay of Hell, dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Political Party! Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and on Dante, Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and rice, the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in Afraid of Charles Darwin?: and Evolutionary order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in political the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in of The Essay example developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the condoleezza rice political, Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over season of summer masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of condoleezza rice political party dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the Who’s Afraid of Charles Debating Feminism and Evolutionary Theory, most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in rice political party ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at least a margin of error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of Essay writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in condoleezza Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. Of Summer! type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and condoleezza political, ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. Of Summer! attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the condoleezza rice political party, plagiarism and collusion statement on of cognitive psychology the front of the sheet. Party! ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).

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