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The Mind Of A Murderer - S01E01 Ivy League Killer - YouTubeReviews / Sport Nutrition. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN AND AMINO-ACID SUPPLEMENTATION ON ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE. Richard B Kreider PhD. Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Human Movement Sciences & Education, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee 38152. Email: email@example.com. Sportscience 3(1), sportsci.org/jour/9901/rbk.html, 1999 (5579 words) Reviewed by Brian Leutholtz PhD, Department of Exercise Science, Physical Education, and Recreation, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. BACKGROUND . Protein and amino acids are among the most common nutritional supplements taken by murderer, athletes. On My. This review evaluates the of a theoretical rationale and potential effects on reference style athletic performance of murderer protein, purported anabolic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, creatine, and hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB). LITERATURE . Two books, 61 research articles, 10 published abstracts, and 19 review articles or book chapters. FINDINGS . Dietary supplementation of protein beyond that necessary to maintain nitrogen balance does not provide additional benefits for essay on my, athletes. Mind Of A. Ingesting carbohydrate with protein prior to or following exercise may reduce catabolism, promote glycogen resynthesis, or promote a more anabolic hormonal environment. Whether employing these strategies during training enhances performance is not yet clear. There is some evidence from clinical studies that certain amino acids (e.g., arginine, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, and phenylalanine) have anabolic effects by stimulating the release of growth hormone, insulin, and/or glucocorticoids, but there is little evidence that supplementation of these amino acids enhances athletic performance. Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and glutamine may be involved in exercise-induced central fatigue and immune suppression, but their ergogenic value as supplements is equivocal at present. Most studies indicate that creatine supplementation may be an essay on my life, effective and of a, safe way to american style enhance performance of of a murderer intermittent high-intensity exercise and to enhance adaptations to training. Supplementation with hydroxymethylbutyrate appears to reduce catabolism and increase gains in strength and Metal, fat-free mass in mind murderer, untrained individuals initiating training; as yet, limited data are available to decide how it affects training adaptations in athletes. CONCLUSIONS . Love Quotes. Of the nutrients reviewed, creatine appears to mind have the greatest ergogenic potential for athletes involved in intense training. Essay About Securities Commission (SEC). FURTHER RESEARCH . All supplements reviewed here need more evaluation for safety and effects on of a athletic performance. Quotes. Reprint В· Reference List В· Help. KEYWORDS: anabolic, BCAA, branched-chain amino acids, creatine, ergogenic, glutamine, HMB, hydroxymethylbutyrate, training. Amino acids are the mind of a murderer building blocks of protein in american style, the body; assuch they are essential for the synthesis of structural proteins,enzymes, and some hormones and neurotransmitters. Amino acids arealso involved in of a, numerous metabolic pathways that affect exercisemetabolism. Love. Consequently, it has been suggested that athletesinvolved in intense training require additional protein in the dietor that they should supplement their diet with specific amino acids.I review here the rationale and mind murderer, the evidence for the potentialergogenic effect of short-term supplementation with protein and aminoacids and the evidence for psychological association reference style, the potential anabolic effect oflonger-term use when supplementation is mind of a combined with training. Metal. Ideal first with protein, then with the amino acids under thefollowing headings: the potentially anabolic amino acids; thebranched-chain amino acids, which have a somewhat different role inmetabolism and in mind, their potential effect on performance; glutamine,which is in a class of its own for its effects on Nordic Metal the immune system;creatine, an amino acid that is not one of the building blocks ofprotein but is involved in short-term energy production in muscle;and hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB), a potentially anabolic metabolite ofthe amino acid leucine. This review is an update rather than an mind of a murderer, exhaustive account of allpublished works on the topic. I have cited two books, 60 researcharticles, 10 published abstracts, and 18 review articles/bookchapters from my own database of references. In my database there area further 97 research articles, 78 abstracts, and 38 reviewarticles/book chapters on the topic. These additional references arereviewed elsewhere (Kreider, 1999; Kreider,1998; Williams et al., 1999). Downloadthe complete list as a Word 97 file by clicking on about Does Human Cloning thislink. A considerable amount of mind murderer research has evaluated dietaryprotein needs of athletes. Although there is about and Exchange (SEC) some debate, moststudies indicate that in order to maintain protein balance duringintense resistance and/or endurance training, athletes should ingestapproximately 1.3 to mind 1.8 g protein per kg body mass per day(Butterfield, 1991; Lemon,1998; Kreider et al., 1993; Kreider,1999). About The US Securities (SEC). Athletes training at high-altitude may need as much as 2.2g protein per kg per day in mind murderer, order to maintain protein balance(Butterfield, 1991). This protein intakeis about 1.5 to 2 times the psychological reference recommended dietary allowance (RDA) forthe normal adult. In most instances an of a, iso-energetic diet can providethe required protein, but athletes who maintain hypo-energetic diets,do not ingest enough quality protein in love quotes othello, their diet, and/or train ataltitude may be susceptible to protein malnutrition (Kreider,1999). Of A Murderer. In theory, this state could slow tissue growth and/orrecovery from training. On the other hand, ingesting more proteinthan necessary to about Securities Commission (SEC) maintain protein balance during training (e.g.,> 1.8 g/kg/d) does not promote greater gains in strength orfat-free mass (Lemon et al., 1992;Tarnopolsky et al., 1992). Mind. Thesefindings indicate that athletes typically do not need to supplementtheir normal diets with protein, provided they ingest enough qualityprotein to maintain protein balance. More recently, there has been interest in determining the effectsof pre- and post-exercise carbohydrate and protein feedings onhormonal responses to exercise (Cade et al.,1992; Chandler et al., 1994; Royand Tarnopolsky, 1998; Tarnopolskyet al., 1997; Zawadzki et al.,1992). Ingestion of protein with carbohydrate has been reportedto increase insulin and/or growth hormone levels to a greater degreethan ingestion of carbohydrate alone (Chandleret al., 1994; Zawadzki et al.,1992). Consequently, ingesting protein and carbohydrate prior toexercise may serve as an anti-catabolic nutritional strategy(Carli et al., 1992). Further, ingestingcarbohydrate and protein following exercise may promote a moreanabolic hormonal profile, glycogen resynthesis, and/or hastenrecovery from intense exercise (Roy andTarnopolsky, 1998; Roy et al., 1997).Over time these alterations may allow an athlete to tolerate trainingto a greater degree and/or promote greater training adaptations, butthe evidence is not yet clear. One of the commonly purported benefits of amino acidsupplementation is that certain amino acids (e.g., arginine,histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, and phenylalanine) maystimulate the moral release of growth hormone, insulin, and/orglucocorticoids, thereby promoting anabolic processes (Kreider,1993). Murderer. There is some clinical evidence that amino acidsupplementation may stimulate growth hormone releasing factors and/orgrowth hormone release (Carlson, et al.,1989;; Garlick and american psychological style, Grant, 1988;Iwasaki et al., 1987; Merimeeet al., 1969). For example, intravenous arginine and ornithineinfusion have been used clinically for stimulating growth hormonerelease (Carlson et al., 1989; Iwasakiet al., 1987). In addition, preliminary clinical studiesindicated that protein (20 to 60 g); arginine and murderer, lysine (1.2 g); andornithine (70 mg/kg) increased growth hormone and somatomedinconcentrations in the blood (Bucci et al., 1990;Jackson et al., 1968; Isidoriet al., 1981). However, other researchers have not replicatedthese findings, particularly in healthy individuals (Lemon,1991). There is also little evidence that supplementation ofthese amino acids during training significantly affects bodycomposition, strength, and/or muscle hypertrophy (Kreider,1999). Consequently, the effects of amino acid supplementation ongrowth-hormone release and training adaptations are as yetunclear. Researchers have expended a considerable amount of effort onevaluating the effects of Nordic Metal Age Essay supplementation of branched-chain aminoacids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on mind murderer physiological andpsychological responses to exercise (Blomstrandet al., 1991; Kreider, 1998; Wagenmakers,1998). There are two primary hypotheses regarding the ergogenicvalue of supplementation with these amino acids. First, BCAA supplementation has been reported to decreaseexercise-induced protein degradation and/or muscle enzyme release (anindicator of muscle damage) possibly by promoting an anti-catabolichormonal profile (Carli et al., 1992;Coombes and Nordic Age Essay, McNaughton, 1995).Theoretically, BCAA supplementation during intense training may helpminimize protein degradation and thereby lead to mind of a greater gains infat-free mass. Although several studies support this hypothesis,additional research is necessary to determine the long-term effectsof BCAA supplementation during training on Nordic Metal Age Essay markers of of a catabolism,body composition, and strength (Kreider,1998). Second, the Essay The US and Exchange Commission availability of BCAA during exercise has beentheorized to contribute to central fatigue (Newsholmeet al., 1991). During endurance exercise, BCAAs are taken up bythe muscles rather than the liver in order to contribute to oxidativemetabolism. The source of BCAAs for mind, muscular oxidative metabolismduring exercise is the plasma BCAA pool, which is replenished throughthe catabolism of quotes whole body proteins during endurance exercise(Davis, 1995; Kreider,1998; Newsholme et al., 1991).However, the oxidation of BCAAs in the muscle during prolongedexercise may exceed the catabolic capacity to increase BCAAavailability, so plasma BCAA concentration may decline duringprolonged endurance exercise (Blomstrand etal., 1988; Blomstrand et al., 1991).The decline in plasma BCAAs during endurance exercise can result inan increase in the ratio of free tryptophan to mind BCAAs. Free tryptophanand BCAAs compete for entry into the brain via the same amino-acidcarrier (Newsholme et al., 1991).Therefore, a decrease in BCAAs in quotes othello, the blood facilitates entry oftryptophan into the brain. Moreover, most tryptophan in the blood isbound to albumin, and the proportion of tryptophan bound to mind murderer albuminis influenced by essay on my life, the availability of long-chained fatty acids(Davis et al., 1992; Newsholmeet al., 1991). In endurance exercise free fatty-acidconcentration rises, so the amount of tryptophan bound to albuminfalls, increasing the of a concentration of free tryptophan in the blood(Davis, 1995). Collectively, the decline in plasma BCAAs and Nordic, increase in freetryptophan during prolonged endurance exercise alters the ratio offree tryptophan to BCAAs and increases the entry of mind of a tryptophan intothe brain (Newsholme et al., 1991). Anincreased concentration of tryptophan in the brain promotes theformation of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Essay Human Challenge Boundaries?. 5-HThas been shown to induce sleep, depress motor neuron excitability,influence autonomic and endocrine function, and suppress appetite inanimal and of a, human studies. An exercise-induced imbalance in the ratioof free tryptophan to BCAAs has been implicated as a possible causeof acute physiological and psychological fatigue (central fatigue).It has also been hypothesized that chronic elevations in 5-HTconcentration, which may occur in athletes maintaining high-volumetraining, explains some of the Essay about The US Commission (SEC) reported signs and mind, symptoms of theovertraining syndrome: postural hypotension, anemia, amenorrhea,immunosuppression, appetite suppression, weight loss, depression, anddecreased performance (Newsholme et al.,1991; Gastmann and Lehmann, 1998;Kreider, 1998). A number of studies have recently been conducted to evaluatewhether carbohydrate and/or BCAA supplementation affects centralfatigue during exercise and/or signs and symptoms of overtraining.Analysis of this literature indicates that carbohydrate and/or BCAAsupplementation during exercise can affect the ratio of freetryptophan to BCAA. Nordic. For example, carbohydrate administration duringexercise has been reported to attenuate FFA release and minimizeincreases in mind, the free tryptophan:BCAA ratio (Daviset al., 1992). In addition, BCAA supplementation has beenreported to increase plasma BCAA concentration and minimize and/orprevent increases in the ratio of free tryptophan to BCAAs (Blomstrandet al., 1991). Essay The US Securities Commission (SEC). Studies also indicate that BCAA administrationwith or without carbohydrate prior to and during exercise can affectphysiological and psychological responses to exercise (Coombesand McNaughton, 1995; Hefler et al.,1993; Kreider et al., 1992; Kreiderand Jackson, 1994). Nevertheless, the effect of these nutritionally-inducedalterations in the free tryptophan to BCAA ratio on physicalperformance is still not clear. Of A. Most studies indicate that BCAAsupplementation does not improve single-bout endurance performance,but these studies almost certainly lacked power to Essay about The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) delimit small butuseful enhancements of performance (Davis,1995; Gastmann and of a murderer, Lehmann, 1998;Kreider, 1998). Additional research is othello alsonecessary to determine the effect of long-term BCAA supplementationon training adaptations and mind murderer, the signs and symptoms of overtraining(Kreider, 1998). Rennie and colleagues have suggested glutamine supplementation asa strategy to promote muscle growth (Rennie etal., 1994; Rennie, 1996). They based thesuggestion on animal and human studies of the effect of glutamine onprotein synthesis, cell volume, and glycogen synthesis (Rennieet al., 1994; Varnier et al., 1995;Rennie, 1996; Low et al.,1996). Glutamine is also an important fuel for white blood cells,so reductions in blood glutamine concentration following intenseexercise may contribute to immune suppression in Essay The US Securities Commission (SEC), overtrained athletes(Parry-Billings et al., 1990a; Parry-Billingset al., 1990b; Parry-Billings et al.,1992; Kargotich et al., 1996;Newsholme and of a, Calder, 1997). Preliminary studies indicate that supplementation withbranched-chain amino acids (4 to 16 g) and/or glutamine (4 to The US and Exchange Commission 12 g)can prevent the decline or even increase glutamine concentrationduring exercise (Kreider, 1998). In theorythese changes in glutamine concentration could have beneficialeffects on protein synthesis and mind of a murderer, immune function. However, in the fewstudies of moral increased glutamine availability, there was little or noeffect on performance or immune status (Rohde etal., 1998; Nieman and Pedersen, 1999). Itis also unclear whether long-term supplementation of glutamineaffects protein synthesis, body composition, or the incidence ofupper respiratory-tract infections during training. Creatine is of a a naturally occurring amino acid derived from about Does Cloning Ethical theamino acids glycine, arginine, and of a, methionine (Balsomet al., 1994; Williams et al., 1999).Most creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, primarily asphosphocreatine; the Essay Securities rest is found in the heart, brain, and testes(Balsom et al., 1994; Kreider,1998). The daily requirement of mind murderer creatine is approximately 2 to 3g; half is about Does Human Ethical Boundaries? obtained from the diet, primarily from meat and mind of a, fish,while the remainder is on my synthesized (Williams etal., 1999). Creatine supplementation has been proposed as a meansto "load" muscle with creatine and murderer, phosphocreatine (PCr). In theory,an increased store of creatine or phosphocreatine would improve theability to Essay The US Securities produce energy during high intensity exercise as well asimprove the speed of recovery from mind high-intensity exercise. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the effectsof creatine supplementation on muscle concentrations and performance.Creatine supplementation (20 g per day or 0.3 g per kg body mass perday for 4 to 7 days) has been reported to increase intramuscularcreatine and phosphocreatine content by 10 to 30% (Caseyet al., 1996; Febbraio et al, 1995;Green et al., 1996a; Greenet al., 1996b; Greenhaff et al.,1993a; Hultman et al., 1996; Smithet al., 1998b, Vandenberghe et al.,1997). There is also evidence that creatine supplementationenhances the rate of PCr resynthesis following intense exercise(Greenhaff et al., 1993b; Greenhaffet al., 1994a; Greenhaff et al.,1994b). Most studies indicate that short-term creatinesupplementation increases total body mass (Hultmanet al., 1996; Williams et al., 1999),work performed during multiple sets of maximal effort musclecontractions (Greenhaff et al., 1993a;Volek et al., 1997), and single and/orrepetitive sprint capacity (Birch et al.,1994; Grindstaff et al., 1997;Prevost et al., 1997). In addition,long-term creatine supplementation during training has been reportedto promote greater gains in strength (Earnest etal., 1995; Peeters et al., 1999;Stone et al., 1999; Vandenbergheet al., 1997), fat-free mass (Kreider etal., 1998; Stone et al., 1999; Stoutet al., 1999; Vandenberghe et al.,1997), and sprint performance (Kreider etal., 1998; Peyreburne et al., 1998;Stout et al., 1999). Association. However, it should benoted that not all studies report ergogenic benefit (Burkeet al., 1996; Redondo et al., 1996;Terrillion et al., 1997) and thatcaffeine has been reported to counteract the potential ergogenicvalue of murderer creatine supplementation (Vanakoskiet al., 1998; Vandenburghe et al.,1996). Although more research is needed, creatine supplementationappears to be a safe and essay life, effective nutritional strategy to enhancehigh intensity exercise performance and improve training adaptations(Williams et al., 1999). The leucine metabolite hydroxymethylbutyrate (more exactly thecalcium salt of mind murderer b -hydroxy- b -methylbutyric acid) has recently become a popular dietary supplementpurported to promote gains in fat-free mass and strength duringresistance training (Kreider, 1999). Association. Therationale is that leucine and its metabolite a -ketoisocaproate (KIC) appear to inhibit protein degradation(Nair et al., 1992; Nissenet al., 1996), and this anti-proteolytic effect may be mediatedby HMB. Animal studies indicate that approximately 5% of oxidizedleucine is converted to HMB via KIC (Nissen etal., 1994; Van Koevering et al.,1994). The addition of HMB to dietary feed improved colostralmilk fat and growth of sows (Nissen et al.,1994), tended to improve the carcass quality of steers (VanKoevering et al., 1994), and decreased markers of catabolismduring training in of a, horses (Miller et al.,1997). Supplementing with leucine and/or HMB may thereforeinhibit protein degradation during periods associated with increasedproteolysis, such as resistance training. Although much of the available literature on Artificial Ethical Boundaries? HMB supplementationin humans is preliminary in nature, several recently publishedarticles and abstracts support this hypothesis. Leucine infusionappears to decrease protein degradation in humans (Nairet al., 1992). HMB supplementation during 3 to 8 weeks oftraining has been reported to mind murderer promote significantly greater gains offat-free mass and strength in untrained men and women initiatingresistance training (Nissen et al., 1996;Nissen et al., 1997; Vukovichet al., 1997). In some instances these gains were associated withsigns of american reference style significantly less muscle damage (efflux of muscle enzymesand urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion) (Nissenet al., 1996). Although these findings suggest that HMBsupplementation during training may enhance training adaptations inuntrained individuals initiating training, it is less clear whetherHMB supplementation reduces markers of catabolism or promotes greatergains in fat-free mass and strength during resistance training inwell-trained athletes. Indeed, there are several reports of nosignificant effects of HMB supplementation (3 to of a 6 g per day) inwell-trained athletes (Almada et al., 1997;Kreider et al., 1997; Kreideret al., 1999). More research is needed (Kreider,1999). Dietary supplementation of protein beyond that necessary to maintain nitrogen balance does not provide additional ergogenic benefit. And Ethical. Ingesting carbohydrate/protein prior to exercise may reduce catabolism whereas ingesting carbohydrate/protein following exercise may promote glycogen resynthesis, a more anabolic hormonal environment, and recovery. The extent to which these strategies affect training adaptations is unknown. There is some evidence from clinical populations that certain amino acids (e.g., arginine, histidine, lysine, methionine, ornithine, and mind of a murderer, phenylalanine) may stimulate the release of growth hormone, insulin, and/or glucocorticoids and Essay Does Artificial Human Cloning Challenge Ethical Boundaries?, thereby promote anabolic processes. Mind. However, there is little evidence that supplementation of these amino acids provides ergogenic benefit for athletes. Branched-chain amino acids and glutamine have been hypothesized to affect central fatigue and love quotes, exercise-induced immune suppression, but their ergogenic value during prolonged exercise is mind murderer equivocal at present. Most studies indicate that creatine supplementation may be an Metal, effective and safe means to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise performance as well as training adaptations. Of the nutrients evaluated, creatine appears to murderer have the greatest ergogenic potential for athletes involved in Essay Securities Commission, intense training. Hydroxymethylbutyrate supplementation has been reported to of a reduce catabolism and promote greater gains in strength and fat-free mass in Essay Human Cloning Boundaries?, untrained individuals initiating training. Limited data are available on the effects of HMB supplementation on training adaptations in athletes. Over the last few decades researchers have found that amino acidsplay multiple roles in metabolism. For this reason, researchers andathletes are interested in the effects of mind of a murderer amino-acid supplementationon exercise metabolism, exercise performance, and trainingadaptations. And Ethical. Although significant advances have been made, muchremains to be learned about these effects. Researchers should alsoevaluate the long-term safety of amino-acid supplementation, as wellas the potential medical value in the treatment of variousdiseases. ButterfieldG (1991). Amino acids and high protein diets. In Lamb D, Williams M(editors), Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, Vol.4; Ergogenics, enhancement of performance in mind of a murderer, exercise and american psychological association reference, sport(pages 87-122). Indianapolis, Indiana: Brown &Benchmark. Cade JR, Reese RH,Privette RM et al (1992). Of A Murderer. Dietary intervention and training inswimmers. European Journal of Applied Physiology 63,210-15. Carli G, BonifaziM, Lodi L et al (1992). Changes in exercise-induced hormone responseto branched chain amino acid administration. European Journal ofApplied Physiology 64, 272-7. Chandler RM,Byrne HK, Patterson JG et al (1994). Essay About Does Artificial Human Challenge Ethical Boundaries?. Dietary supplements affect theanabolic hormones after weight-training exercise. Journal of mind murderer AppliedPhysiology 76, 839-45. Kreider RB(1999). Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth withresistance training. Sports Medicine 27, 97-110. Kreider RB,Miriel V, Bertun E (1993). Love Quotes Othello. Amino acid supplementation and exerciseperformance: proposed ergogenic value. Sports Medicine 16,190-209. Lemon PW,Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD et al (1992). Protein requirements andmuscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novicebodybuilders. Journal of of a Applied Physiology 73, 767-75. Lemon PWR(1998). Effects of exercise on dietary protein requirements.International Journal of Sport Nutrition 8, 426-47. Roy BD,Tarnopolsky MA (1998). Nordic Metal Age Essay. Influence of murderer differing macronutrient intakeson muscle glycogen resynthesis after resistance exercise. Journal ofApplied Physiology 84, 890-96. Roy BD,Tarnopolsky MA, MacDougall JD et al (1997). And Ethical Dilemmas. Effect of glucosesupplementation timing on protein metabolism after resistancetraining. Journal of mind murderer Applied Physiology 82, 1882-88. TarnopolskyMA, Atkinson SA ,MacDougall JD et al (1992). Evaluation of proteinrequirements for trained strength athletes. Life. Journal of AppliedPhysiology 73, 1986-95. TarnopolskyMA, Bosman M, Macdonald JR et al (1997). Postexerciseprotein-carbohydrate and carbohydrate supplements increase muscleglycogen in murderer, men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology 83,1877-83. ZawadzkiKM, Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL (1992). Carbohydrate-protein complexincreases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Journalof Applied Physiology 72, 1854-9. Bucci L, HicksonJF, Pivarnik JM et al (1990). Ornithine ingestion and Commission (SEC), growth hormonerelease in bodybuilders. Nutrition Research 10, 239-45. Carlson HE,Miglietta JT, Roginsky MS et al (1989). Stimulation of pituitaryhormone secretion by neurotransmitter amino acids in humans.Metabolism 28, 1179-82. Garlick PJ,Grant I (1988). Amino acid infusion increases the sensitivity ofmuscle protein synthesis in vivo to insulin. Biochemistry Journal254, 579-84. Isidori A, LoMonaco A, Cappa M (1981). A study of growth hormone release in manafter oral administration of amino acids. Mind. Current Medical ResearchOpinion 74, 75-81. Iwasaki K, ManoK, Ishihara M et al (1987). Effects of ornithine or arginineadministration on serum amino acid levels. Biochemistry International14, 971-6. Jackson D, GrantDB, Clayton B (1968). Essay About The US Securities. A simple oral test of growth hormone secretionin children. Of A Murderer. Lancet 2, 373-5. Kreider RB(1999). Dietary supplements and the promotion of muscle growth withresistance training. Sports Medicine 27, 97-110. Kreider RB,Miriel V, Bertun E (1993). Metal. Amino acid supplementation and exerciseperformance: proposed ergogenic value. Sports Medicine 16,190-209. Lemon PWR (1991).Protein and amino acid needs of the strength athlete. InternationalJournal of Sport Nutrition. 1, 127-145. Merimee TJ,Rabinowitz D, Fineberg SE (1969). Arginine-initiated release of humangrowth hormone. New England Journal of Medicine 280,1434-8. BlomstrandE, Celsing F, Newshome EA (1988). Changes in plasma concentrations ofaromatic and branch-chain amino acids during sustained exercise inman and their possible role in fatigue. Acta PhysiologicaScandinavica 133, 115-21. BloomstrandE, Hassmen P, Ekblom B et al (1991). Mind Murderer. Administration of branch-chainamino acids during sustained exercise - effects on performance and love quotes, onplasma concentration of some amino acids. European Journal of AppliedPhysiology 63, 83-8. BloomstrandE, Hassmen P, Newsholme E (1991). Effect of branch-chain amino acidsupplementation on mental performance. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica143, 225-6. Carli G,Bonifazi M, Lodi L et al (1992). Changes in exercise-induced hormoneresponse to branched chain amino acid administration. EuropeanJournal of Applied Physiology 64, 272-7. Coombes J,McNaughton L (1995). The effects of branched chain amino acidsupplementation on indicators of mind muscle damage after prolongedstrenuous exercise. Medicine and american association style, Science in Sports and Exercise 27,S149 (abstract) Davis JM (1995).Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance, The centralfatigue hypothesis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 5,S29-38. Davis JM, BailySP, Woods JA et al (1992). Mind. Effects of carbohydrate feedings on plasmafree tryptophan and The US Securities Commission (SEC), branched-chain amino acids during prolongedcycling European Journal of Applied Physiology 65, 513-19. Gastmann UA,Lehmann MJ (1998). Overtraining and the BCAA hypothesis. Medicine andScience in Sports and Exercise 30, 1173-8. Hefler SK,Wildman L, Gaesser GA et al (1993). Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)supplementation improves endurance performance in competitivecyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, S24(abstract) Kreider RB(1998). Mind Murderer. Central fatigue hypothesis and overtraining. In Kreider RB,Fry AC, OвЂ™Toole M (editors), Overtrainingin Sport (pages 309-31).Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics. Kreider RB,Jackson CW (1994). Effects of on my life amino acid supplementation onpsychological status during and intercollegiate swim season.Medicine and mind of a, Science in and ethical, Sports and Exercise 26, S115(abstract) Kreider RB,Miller GW, Mitchell M et al (1992). Effects of of a murderer amino acidsupplementation on ultraendurance triathlon performance. InProceedings of the moral I World Congress on Sport Nutrition (pages488-536). Barcelona, Spain: Enero. Newsholme EA,Parry-Billings M, McAndrew M et al (1991). Biochemical mechanism toexplain some characteristics of overtraining. In Brouns F (editor):Medical Sports Science, Vol. 32, Advances in Nutrition and mind, Top Sport(pages 79-93). Basel, Germany: Karger. WagenmakersAJ (1998). Muscle amino acid metabolism at rest and during exercise:role in Does Artificial, human physiology and of a murderer, metabolism. And Ethical Dilemmas. In Holloszy JO (editor):Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews (pages 287-314). Baltimore,Maryland: Williams & Wilkins. Kargotich S,Rowbottom DG, Keast D et al (1996). Plasma glutamine changes afterhigh intensity exercise in elite male swimmers. Medicine and Sciencein Sport and Exercise 28, S133 (abstract) Low SY, Taylor PM,Rennie MJ (1996). Responses of glutamine transport in cultured ratskeletal muscle to osmotically induced changes in cell volume.Journal of Physiology 492, 877-85. Newsholme EA,Calder PC (1997). The proposed role of glutamine in some cells of theimmune system and speculative consequences for the whole animal.Nutrition 13, 728-30. Nieman DC,Pedersen BK (1999). Exercise and immune function. Of A Murderer. Recentdevelopments. Sports Medicine 27, 72-80. Parry-Billings M,Blomstrand E, Leighton B et al (1990). Does endurance exercise impairglutamine metabolism? Canadian Journal of Sport Science 13, 13P(abstract) Parry-BillingsM, Blomstrand E, McAndrew N et al (1990). A communicational linkbetween skeletal muscle, brain and cells of the immune system.International Journal of and ethical dilemmas Sports Medicine 11, S122-8. Parry-Billings M,Budgett R, Koutedakis K et al (1992). Plasma amino acidconcentrations in the overtraining syndrome: Possible effects on theimmune system. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24,1353-8. Rennie MJ(1996). Glutamine metabolism and transport in skeletal muscle andheart and their clinical relevance. Journal of Nutrition 126(4),1142S-9S. Rennie MJ,Tadros L, Khogali S et al (1994). Glutamine transport and itsmetabolic effects. Journal of Nutrirtion 124, 1503S-8S. Rohde T, Asp S,MacLean DA et al (1998). Competitive sustained exercise in humans,lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and murderer, glutamine--anintervention study. European Journal of Applied Physiology 78,448-53. Varnier M,Leese GP, Thompson J et al (1995). Stimulatory effect of glutamine onglycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. American Journal ofPhysiology 269, E309-15. Balsom P,SС†derlund K, Ekblom B (1994). Creatine in humans with specialreference to creatine supplementation. Sports Medicine 18,268-80. Birch R, Nobel D,Greenhaff P (1994). The influence of dietary creatine supplementationon performance during repeated bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling inman. Moral. European Journal of Applied Physiology 69, 268-76. Burke L, Pyne LD,Telford R (1996). Mind Murderer. Effect of oral creatine supplementation onsingle-effort sprint performance in elite swimmers. InternationalJournal of othello Sports Nutrition 6, 222-33. Casey A,Constantin-Teodosiu D, Howell S et al (1996). Creatine ingestionfavorably affects performance and muscle metabolism during maximalexercise in humans. Mind Of A. American Journal of Physiology 271,E31-7. Earnest C,Snell P, Rodriguez R et al (1995). The effect of creatine monohydrateingestion on anaerobic power indices muscular strength and bodycomposition. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 153, 207-9. Febbraio MA,Flanagan TR, Snow R et al (1995). Essay About Commission. Effect of creatine supplementationon intramuscular TCr metabolism and performance during intermittentsupramaximal exercise in humans. Mind. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 155,387-95. Green AL, HultmanE, Macdonald IA et al (1996). Love Othello. Carbohydrate feeding augments skeletalmuscle creatine accumulation during creatine supplementation inhumans. American Journal of Physiology 271, E821-6. Green AL,Simpson EJ, Littlewood JJ et al (1996). Carbohydrate ingestionaugments creatine retention during creatine feeding in humans. ActaPhysiologica Scandinavica 158, 195-202. 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