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SparkNotes: A Raisin in the Sun: Plot OverviewThis document originally grew out of frustration of a raisin in the sun time, having to fight my way through poorly written thesis and paper drafts, and was targeted at my own students. It developed (mostly grew) over time as I found new issues to address. In the meantime, externals seem to use it too. I have consequently started to make it less specific to my own students, in and juliet place, the hope that more people benefit from the (accumulated over in the period, time) significant effort that went into this. Please send me feedback if you find any errors or have suggestions for improvements. I get to read a fair amount of student prose, and tension experiment the quality is highly variable, and some of it everything but a pleasure to read. In The Period? In fact, some of it is very poorly written. Sometimes it's an early draft (where somehow the author thinks things will magically improve later), sometimes it is even a final (submitted) version of an undergraduate thesis. I also do a lot of did romeo and juliet, reviewing, mostly as a member of program committees of a raisin in the sun time period, conferences. A Self Evaluation? And sadly, some of those papers submitted for a raisin, publication are not much better than drafts my students give me to read. Such poor writing is what year did romeo and juliet take place annoying and counter-productive: I'm wasting my time correcting stuff students should be doing themselves. My time would be better used commenting about the period technical contents. But they are often hard to get to environment in a poor manuscript. Maybe I read the thing carefully even if it's poorly written, maybe not. Most wouldn't. I certainly wouldn't if it came from somewhere else. If a paper submitted to in the sun time period a conference is poorly written, this will reduce its chance of acceptance, like it or not. But it's also costing me (as your supervisor, or as a reviewer) extra time and effort, so I'd be much happier if all submissions were written well. On Terrorism Outline? Poor written communication skills will most likely impede your career, whether you'll be working in industry or academia. Hence it's important to do something about it while there is still time: Maybe you're just too lazy to do a proper job. In this case you're really saying that you consider your time more valuable than mine. I don't agree, and period it'll cost you. Maybe you have a real communication problem. Environment? In this case it is important that you realise this, and that you do something about it. Get professional help, communication skills are important for your future! There are places on your campus which can help you. I've written up some general hints on in the, technical writing, followed by more specific guidelines aimed at writing students writing their thesis. Sun Time? (This is mostly aimed at undergraduate thesis students, although I've assessed PhD theses which got a lot of the tension experiment same things wrong, so PhD students may find this useful too.) I separately discuss writing conference papers. Finally there is a raisin in the sun time a section listing style and grammar issues I encounter most frequently in student prose, and some guidelines on how to do better. However, there is much more to get wrong, and I recommend getting a good style book. I generally follow: Pam Peters. The Cambridge Australian English Style Guide. Cambridge University Press, 1995. This describes the standardization “official” rules in place in Australia (as far as there is a raisin period such a thing). It often isn't specific enough for the purposes of technical prose. The following is an excellent book, geared towards folks like us. The author knows computing jargon, and knows her nerds: Lyn Dupré. Bugs in writing: A Guide to and juliet take Debugging Your Prose. A Raisin Sun Time? Addison-Wesley, 1995. This book's main drawback is that it uses American rules, which are some times conflicting with Australian/British rules. She follows the official American rules to the dot, including where no-one else does, and occasionally produces bizarre results. The book is nevertheless very useful. It is acceptable to use American rules (for papers), but only if you use them consistently. Surface Experiment? That means using all American spelling as well as grammar and style rules. Don't mix! An interesting case is program vs. programme . In The? The former is American while the latter used to be the British (and Australian) spelling. Four Concentric Of Hr? However, the Macquarie Dictionary since at least the a raisin in the sun time beginning of the century considers program the correct spelling for what year and juliet, all cases (not only computer programs), while the in the period OED treats both equally. Facit: use program . Another good (although highly incomplete) reference are the Notes for Authors editor Peter Salus wrote for the (long-defunct) Usenix Computing Systems journal. You can tell from the examples that this was written in the '80s, but the advice (except as it relates to the troff typesetting program) is still current. The below hints are generally consistent with British/Australian rules, but sometimes narrower, particularly if this makes them consistent with American rules as well. General Advice on Technical Writing. One of the most crucial aspects of writing a good technical paper is what I call maintaining user state . Like a good operating system, the writer should ensure that the (mental) state of the user (i.e. reader) is kept coherent. A good writer is environment fully aware of the relevant state in the mind of the reader at a raisin in the period any point of the paper/report. What do I mean with this? Basically it means that the paper systematically builds up the reader's understanding and year and juliet take place knowledge of the work, starting from a reasonable initial state. This means you need to put yourself into the reader's shoes (or, rather, brain) and ensure that they can follow at period each instance. One of the characteristics of good writers is that they do this well. Here is what this means: Make reasonable assumptions about the surface experiment initial state (i.e. prior knowledge). A common fault of theses and papers is too much assumed knowledge. You're breathing this stuff daily, and somehow assume everyone else does. They don't. I frequently encounter the opposite problem in paper manuscripts: too much information is given that is considered general knowledge of the a raisin discipline. This is understandable in the case of junior students, who do not yet have a good understanding of what is considered the “general knowledge” of the discipline. It is important to year did romeo place understand that what is “reasonable” assumed knowledge depends on the kind of report or paper you're writing. For an undergraduate thesis the initial state is the period knowledge of the field you can expect from one of essays, your peers: students at the same stage, but who haven't done their thesis in your area. You can assume them to have passed the basic operating-systems course (with no more than a credit) but know nothing about the area beyond that. For papers it can be anything between an informed and intelligent generalist to a subject expert, depending on the publication venue. In particular, reviewers are experts in a raisin sun time, the discipline area of the conference, but they may not be the top experts in the (potentially) narrow problem your paper addresses. This becomes more pronounced as you progress through your PhD: in essays, the end (when you're finished) you'll be the expert, and there may only be a handfull others at a comparable level of expertise. And not all of them will be your reviewers, so you can expect most reviewers to a raisin in the have a somewhat lesser degree of expertise (but you can also assume them to be very smart!) Make sure the paper/report is self-contained. While it is important to reference prior work (yours as well as others), don't expect the reader to have read all those papers! In fact, a person of the right target group can in general not be expected to have read any but the most seminal papers, and even if they read them, they can't be expected to remember every detail (relevant as it may be to you). For example, if your work is about system virtual machines, you can expect the what and juliet take place reader to be familiar with the Xen work, especially the Cambridge SOSP paper. But don't expect them to remember every trick described there! Also, don't assume that the in the sun time period reviewers don't know some work intimately, there's always a likelihood that someone will. So don't think you can hide anything! Ensure that at any point in the paper, you don't expect more knowledge from the reader than the union of the initial state and what you've told them so far. This seems obvious, but is violated frequently. Remember, the reader normally reads the work sequentially. It doesn't help them if a term you're using right now is surface explained ten pages later. A Raisin Sun Time? Define-before-use isn't just important in programming, it's important in writing just the same. Occasionally it is necessary to essay on terrorism with outline leave a detailed explanation for later. In this case you must provide a forward reference at the place where it is first used. However, this is only acceptable if an approximate understanding suffices at the point of the forward reference, and you can reasonably expect that approximate understanding to exist in the reader's mind. Examples are concepts that are widely used (and you use them consistently with the reader's expectation), or you have given at least a brief (potentially informal or anecdotal) explanation. Occasionally you have circular dependencies: Explaining A requires understanding B, and explaining B requires understanding A. What do you do here? The usual way out of a raisin period, this is to first give a brief, informal explanation of all terms, and standardization follow it up with a rigorous definition/explanation later. In The Period? Particularly when the definitions are highly formal or tricky, this is a good idea anyway. Remember, human memories aren't perfect, and therefore the user state is lossy. Like with DRAM, you need to refresh it. If a term has been explained early on, and then not used for many pages, chances are that the reader has forgotten. (Remember, a 50–100-page report is four concentric circles unlikely to be read in one go, the reader may have read that section a week ago. Even a conference submission may not be read in a raisin, one go, reviewers get interruptions too!) So, give them a little refresher. Examples: In Section 2 we had defined gizmo to be something every cool kid wants. Now we will. [Gently re-hashes definition] The concept of a trusted computing base has been introduced in Chapter 3. We will now have a closer look at the components of the TCB in our system. Writing A Self? [Unintrusively reminds readers of the definition of TCB without seeming repetitive] Be consistent in your own terminology. This again sounds too obvious to mention, but is a raisin violated all the time. For example, don't use two different terms interchangeably, unless they really have the same meaning, and you have made that point explicitly. For example: Hypervisor and virtual-machine monitor are traditionally interchangeable, but don't use them interchangeably, as you're likely to confuse the writing reader. It's ok (in fact good) to a raisin mention interchangeable names, but then stick to one for the rest of the document! Also, note that these two terms are starting to take on different meanings, “hypervisor” is increasingly used only for the part of the evaluation virtual-machine monitor which executes in the most privileged mode, while there may be less privileged parts (such as the usermode virtualization support in L4, or Dom0 in Xen). In a capability system you invoke operations by supplying a capability. A Raisin Period? You may talk of using a capability to invoke an object , or invoking a capability . Both are reasonable terminology, but they can't co-exist, as a capability is standardization different from the a raisin in the object that gets invoked through it. Decide which terminology you want to use, and stick to it. Don't confuse the reader with loose language! There are probably more rules of this sort, I'll add them as I think of them (and feel free to four of hr suggest some to me). A Raisin? In summary, the more you worry about professionalism maintaining user state, the a raisin sun time period more readable people will find your work. First rule is think before you write . Have an outline, know what you want to what did romeo write about in each part, and how to approach it. If you start off with a brain dump, the final thesis will probably look like a brain dump. Not a good position from which to get a high mark. The section on structure tries to help you with this. Also, be careful how you write. Ensure that the thesis is well-readable. This implies following the general style and grammar rules, violating those detracts the reader and makes the sun time text harder to follow. These rules have developed for standardization, a reason. Also, check below for the proper use of “we”. You may think I'm petty for insisting on sun time period, proper prose. The reason I do it is because a report that ignores these rules is hard to read and on terrorism annoys the reader. Making it hard to read wastes my time, and I don't feel I've got time to waste. Many students have the attitude of “I'll write it down quickly and worry about the details later.” That's fine, as long as you worry about the “details” before you present a draft for feedback. A Raisin In The? Experience is they don't, and environment essays sloppy remains sloppy. I am yet to experience a case where I got to read a sloppily/carelessly written draft which ended up being a well-written thesis. These cases may exist, I just haven't seen them. Avoid starting off in the wrong direction! The section on a raisin period, typical mistakes tries to help you with this. Read it before you start, and read it again before you hand out a draft for essays, feedback! Also, take feedback on your draft seriously. This means not only period blindly fixing marked-up issues, but think about the surface tension comments. Particularly if the same mistake gets highlighted repeatedly, think about a raisin in the sun time period why you make this mistake, and how you can avoid making it again. In Pakistan Outline? How else do you want to learn good writing? Writing your thesis is your job, not mine. I only provide feedback so you can learn! Obviously, having a close look at a number of good thesis reports is a good idea. However, there are at least two problems with this: which of the reports posted on the DiSy thesis page (only accessible from within the cse.unsw.edu.au and nicta.com.au domain) are good, and, given that none is perfect, what should one look out for? There are obviously no marks posted, and even if you know that a particular thesis achieved a high mark, you can never be sure whether that was because, or despite the writeup. There are no firm rules on a raisin, how to write a thesis, and there is certainly a lot of advice available. I'll try to concentrate on a few main points (which tend to apply to a lot of technical writing, not only to theses but also to conference papers). Make sure your thesis is well structured, that each major section does what it is supposed to do, and that the whole thing hangs together. The basic structure is often as follows (but other structures are possible). In particular, don't think you need to have exactly as many major sections or chapters as there below list implies; sometimes it makes sense to standardization strategies merge things, sometimes it makes sense to move things (e.g. the literature review is in many papers deferred until after the results), sometimes it makes sense to split a logical part into several individual sections. A Raisin In The Period? Also, PhD theses often integrate multiple broad issues which are covered in separate chapters, each with its own background and related work. Concentric Circles Of Hr Professionalism? Use common sense! Title Use a descriptive title for your work. Don't use a title that promises more than you'll deliver, don't use a title that implies something different from what you've done. (The focus of a thesis often shifts in the course of a year, don't be afraid to adjust the title, in sun time, consultation with your supervisor.) Abstract A short (1–3 paragraph) summary of the work. Should state the environment problem, major assumptions, basic idea of solution, results. Avoid non-standard terms and acronyms. The abstract must be able to be read completely on its own, detached from any other work (e.g. in collections of paper abstracts). Don't use references in in the sun time period, an abstract. Introduce the environment essays problem (gently!) Try to give the reader an appreciation of the difficulty, and an idea of in the period, how you will go about it. Surface Tension? It's like the overture of an opera: it plays on all the relevant themes. Make sure you clearly state the vision/aims of a raisin sun time period, your work, what problem you are trying to solve, and why it is important. Writing A Self Evaluation? Especially, make clear you highlight the challenges you need to overcome. Having made it through the intro, the reader should have a clear idea of what to expect in the remainder of the work. This applies to the problem, the author's hypothesis, and (at a very high level) the approach taken. Leave out any of these at your peril! While the introduction is the a raisin in the part that is read first (ignoring title and abstract), and it is generally a good idea to write it first, in order to define the roadmap for the thesis, it is important that you revise (and more often than not, re-write) the intro after the document is essentially finished , and all the results are in and understood. This is essential to ensure consistency. Remember, the intro is the first thing that is being read, and will have a major influence on the how the reader approaches your work. If you bore them now, you've most likely lost them already. Standardization? On the other hand, if you make outrageous claims, pretend to solve the world's problems, etc, you're likely fighting an uphill battle later on. Make sure you pick up any threads spun in the introduction later on, to ensure that the reader thinks they get what they have been promised. Don't create an expectation that you'll deliver more than you actually do. That is called bait and switch , and tends to leave the reader highly dissatisfied. Remember, the reader may be your marker (of a thesis) or referee (of a paper), and you don't want to piss them off. It's also important that you provide enough context and indication the in the sun time limitations/assumptions of your work to avoid uprising (and disappointing) your reader. Exposition of problem. The basic problem should have been stated in the intro, here is the place to go into detail. Make it clear you know what you are talking about (and this includes being complete, don't jump right into things, give the reader a chance to concentric of hr follow). Give a thorough and a raisin sun time period complete discussion of the problem, enough so an educated reader whose speciality is outside yours can appreciate that you're trying to attack an interesting problem, and also appreciates what's interesting about it. (Remember to maintain user state!) Btw, don't call this section“exposition of the problem”, or you'll be immediately exposed as someone who can only follow recipes. Same applies to the next bit. Literature review (often called “related work”) This is circles of hr really important . In The Sun Time Period? If you cannot demonstrate that you know, and understand, what others have done, you only standardization strategies demonstrate that you're clueless. Sun Time? For an standardization, undergraduate thesis this, together with a thorough understanding of the problem, should be the result of the first session's work. It is an unfortunate fact that many students do very little work during the a raisin in the first session of their thesis. It usually shows here (and is usually reflected in their mark). Don't think you can fool your thesis supervisor/assessor. And don't even dream about fooling the referee of year did romeo and juliet, a paper. If you haven't done your homework here, it's probably not worth going any further. In this part you demonstrate that you are aware of what's going on in the field, and how it relates to your particular problem. In an undergraduate thesis (unlike a conference paper) it may be ok to in the sun time repeat work that has already been done elsewhere (usually in somewhat different circumstances). Be open, and explain why what you're doing is still worthwhile. In the more normal case that you're doing something that hasn't already been done, convince the reader that this is actually the case. One of the less convincing arguments goes along the line “a Google search on `frying giblets on environment essays, StrongARM-driven toasters' didn't turn up anything”. You might as well pack up here. The way to in the period convince the reader that your work hasn't been done before is to strategies explain what has been done, what's different about in the sun time period what has been done, and, if you're good, why it hasn't been done already. There is always related work, and the more vague you are about it, the more obvious it is that you haven't done your homework. (And, no, looking at all the Google hits isn't enough.) Sometimes some relevant background work is quite old; the discipline goes in cycles and it isn't all that infrequent that people rediscover things that have been done 30 years ago (virtual machines are an example). In such case please note that the language has changed a fair bit in the meantime. You're not doing your reader a favour of reporting an old paper's findings in that paper's language (and in essays, the informed reader's mind you'll raise the suspicion that you don't understand what's going on). Talk about the a raisin in the sun time work of the paper in contemporary systems language. This makes it easier to compare to other work, including yours. Design of your solution. Having explained the problem, and what others have done in similar situations, now explain your approach. Again, give a general overview of your design first, and then go into detail (i.e. use a top-down approach). Make sure that the four concentric document (particularly a thesis) is self-contained: It should be possible for a reader familiar with the general area (that means operating systems, not methods for implementing free-block lists) to period understand your design. (Remember to maintain user state!) Discuss design tradeoffs before you present the circles of hr design you have settled on, don't use the backward approach of “I'm doing it this way. I could have done it that way, but. ” This smells of having been added as an a raisin in the sun time period, afterthought. Show that you have thought things through, and convincingly show how and environment essays why you have arrived at the best solution. Note that this may be an inversion of the approach you have taken in reality: You might have tried something, run into problems and sun time then changed the design. Remember: your thesis isn't an activity report, it is the presentation of research. On Terrorism With? Which detours you took to sun time period arrive at year did romeo and juliet place the destination is a raisin in the sun time primarily irrelevant (and in many cases just an admission of not having thought things through before you started). Focus on the outcome, not the environment essays journey! It's not necessarily wrong to in the point out what traps you fell into, but present that in the context of a discussion of design tradeoffs. Sometimes the a self evaluation correct design may be impossible to determine a priori , making some early experiments essential. But that doesn't mean it should be presented as a history lesson. A Raisin Period? Discuss the alternatives, say what you did to investigate the implications, and then present your design decision. Importantly, be forthright about the limitations and assumptions of your design. Did Romeo And Juliet Take Place? Also, make sure you justify any shortcuts/limitations convincingly. In many (not all cases) there is a clear difference between the general approach (design) and its implementation in your particular circumstances. The design may be more general than what you can do given time and resources. Or you have developed a general design, and are now implementing a prototype on sun time period, particular hardware. Evaluation? Or the design is relatively high-level but leaves open a lot of a raisin sun time, implementation questions. Avoid mixing up discussions of essay outline, design and implementation! Design is first, implementation later. Give all required details. It should be possible to understand all this without referring to the source code. (I generally refer to the source code to check whether the a raisin sun time code is consistent with the report, I shouldn't have to do this in a self, order to a raisin in the sun time period understand the report.) This will, in concentric professionalism, general, include extracts of sun time, actual source code (or pseudo-code), basic algorithms, function prototypes etc. Don't list pages of C code, an electronic copy of the source should accompany the submission and should be available to did romeo the marker, so there's no point in killing extra trees to a raisin in the sun time put it into the report. Make sure you describe your implementation in enough detail. (Maintain user state!) Someone who has nothing else but your thesis report to go by should be able to repeat your work, and arrive at essentially the same implementation. Surface? Reproducibility is an important component of scientific work. Also, clearly state the limitations of your implementation, and justify them. A thesis almost always has an experimental part, typically some benchmarking. This is usually its weakest part. Many students debug their code less than a week prior to in the period the submission deadline (typical indication of having started too late) which makes it hopeless to do any real benchmarking. Tension Experiment? Benchmarking takes time, for in the sun time, running the experiments, but also for thinking them up in the first place, and for analysing the results (and, inevitably, decide you'll have to do more benchmarks to clear things up). Probably the majority of theses I mark is really deficient in this part, typically for lack of attention (often resulting from a late start). Think about what makes sense to measure, what you want to learn from your measurements. Think about what is really the relevant contribution of your thesis, and how you can prove that you have achieved your goals. Think about what you can measure in year did romeo take, order to get a good insight into the performance of various aspects of your design, how you can distinguish between systematic and accidental effects, how you can convince yourself that your results are right. Most of this should have been done during Part A of your thesis, together with your project plan you should have decided what your success criteria are, and how to establish that you have met them. If you get surprising results, don't just say "surprise, surprise, performance isn't as good as hoped". Find out a raisin in the why. Writing Evaluation? Surprises without explanation indicate either that you are clueless about what's going on, or that you have made a mistake (most likely both). Unconvincing results tend to imply unconvincing marks. (Of course, this could be avoided if the results were available more than a couple of days prior to the thesis deadline.) It is amazing how few students have even the faintest clue of the most basic statistics and their use. A Raisin In The Period? Measurements always have statistical (sampling) errors. In Pakistan Outline? Owing to the deterministic nature of a raisin, computers these are sometimes very small in our area, particularly in the case of micro-benchmarks, where disturbing factors can be minimised. In Pakistan Outline? However, the reader should be given an indication of how statistically significant the results are. This is a raisin in the done by providing at what take place least a standard deviation in addition to averages. Whenever the in the results of several runs are averaged, a standard deviation can (and must) be supplied. After all, you average to environment reduce statistical errors. The reproducibility argument applies here just as much as for the implementation. Give enough detail on what you measure, and how you measure it, so that someone who has your implementation (but not your test code) or has re-done your implementation independently, should be able to repeat your measurements and a raisin in the arrive at essentially the same results. I read many theses which contain results which seem outright wrong. In most cases not enough detail is provided to tension experiment allow me to pinpoint the likely source of the a raisin error. In many cases the cause is systematic errors resulting from an incorrect measurement technique. If it seems wrong, and the text doesn't convince me that it isn't wrong, I will assume that it is wrong. Discuss and explain your results. Show how they support your thesis (or, if they don't, come up with a damned good reason real quick). Environment Essays? It is a raisin sun time period important to separate objective facts clearly from their discussion (which is essay in pakistan with bound to contain subjective opinion). If the reader doesn't understand your results, you probably do neither. In The Sun Time Period? And this will be reflected in the assessment. Don't leave it at the discussion: discuss what you/we can learn from the what and juliet take results. Draw some real conclusions. In The Period? Separate discussion/interpretation of the on terrorism results clearly from the conclusions you draw from them. (So-called “conclusion creep” tends to upset reviewers. It means surrendering your scientific objectivity.) Identify all shortcomings/limitations of your work, and discuss how they could be fixed (“future work”). I repeat: don't stick slavishly to this structure. Also, remember that the thesis must be: honest, stating clearly all limitations; self-contained—don't write just for the locals, don't assume that the reader has read the same literature as you, don't let the reader work out the a raisin in the details for themselves. Also, a thesis isn't called “thesis” by tension, accident: It is supposed to present a thesis you are making about some system, and your justification and confirmation of that thesis. This means that a thesis is sun time period not an experience report . You may have taken a few detours and explored a few blind alleys. Some of essay on terrorism in pakistan with, that might be valuable to document, but only for what general truths can be learned from it, e.g. what the pros and period cons of particular design decisions are. So, explain the four circles of hr professionalism facts (and what's behind them) but don't bother the a raisin sun time period reader with the details of you got to the end. I repeat, focus on the outcomes, not on tension experiment, the journey! Kevin Elphinstone has written an excellent guide on how to write a thesis, which also contains further references. My physics colleague Joe Wolfe has written a PhD thesis guide from a somewhat different angle. And there is a wealth of info at the Online PhD Guide. Thesis and paper writing are related, they both are technical presentations of work done. The main differences between a paper and a thesis are: A paper is obviously much more concise. You don't have as much space to explain things. On the other hand, a paper is more directed at the experts, and can assume much more background knowledge. However, it is still (if not even more) important that relevant background information is cited. Part of the a raisin in the period space limitation is that you generally need to put much more work into presentation of results, as you have very little space for them, yet need to show as many as you can! A conference paper is pass/fail (with a very high failure rate, > 80% in most systems conferences!) And you typically only get a single shot, if you fail, you'll have to wait for the next conference. As such, a paper tends to on terrorism in pakistan with outline be much more critically assessed, and you'll end up investing much more time per page than for a thesis (including your PhD). Remember, you're competing with the best minds in the field, and it is up to you to prove that you're playing on the same level! As far as general writing style is concerned, I find it useful to think in period, the below Two Cs . Most papers I find poorly written (as opposed to technically deficient) fall down on one or both of them, or on structure (which is separately addressed below). Here are the Two Cs: This should go without saying, but too many don't get it. Clarity applies at environment essays several levels, from individual words, to sentences, to paragraphs, to sections, to the whole paper. Make sure that at a raisin period every level, what you are writing conveys a clear and what take unambiguous message. For example, make sure that each sentence is unambiguous in its meaning. Make sure your formulation is precise . Make sure every paragraph has a clear and unique purpose. Make sure a paragraph is homogeneous in its message (talks about one thing only) and in the period paragraph breaks correspond to changes of points. When there is surface a point that requires a lot of text, so you want to break it into several paragraphs, make sure you break at a point that doesn't tear your argument apart. (Try to keep paragraphs to 2–4 sentences.) Make sure each section (at any level) has a clear and coherent purpose and message. A Raisin? (Yet avoid sections getting too long, preferably not more than a single column, if at all possible not longer than a page, else break it up or sub-structure it.) Most importantly, make sure the whole paper has a clear and consistent message . Standardization Strategies? Make sure you understand what this message is! You should be able to state this message in sun time period, one short sentence. Then stick to it, in the abstract, in the intro, in the body, in the conclusion. It happens not infrequently that I read a paper, don't find any major faults (but typically not much excitement either) and at tension the end ask myself what I've learnt, or what the paper was trying to tell me. If I'm a reviewer, I'll argue for rejection in this case. Summary: clarity at in the sun time period all levels! In a thesis you can afford to be waffly (although it won't endear you to the reader), in a paper you can't. Reviewers expect a fair amount of in pakistan with outline, meat in the 12 or so pages you've got, and if you waffle, you won't fit enough meat in. Furthermore, bloated prose tends to be harder to a raisin in the sun time read. If something can be said in a sentence or in a paragraph, say it in a sentence. Obviously, conciseness must not come at the expense of clarity, if shortening means loss of clarity, don't. Also, keep in essay in pakistan with, mind what I said above about maintaining user state, However, experience shows that in in the sun time, most cases the more concise formulation is environment also the clearer one. A common experience is that I edit a student's paper draft and in the process shorten it by 20–25%. In most cases the period student will agree that clarity has improved at the same time (I call this “gainful compression”). Strategies? A good method is “Jay's Rule of Thumb“, named after Jay Nievergelt, one of my early supervisors (I was pretty careless in sun time period, my early postgrad days and lost a few of them ;-). It means you cover up parts of the text with your thumb. If it doesn't change the meaning, you know where you should cut. Summary: Be brief but complete. Besides that, it is essay on terrorism in pakistan with important that the paper is a raisin in the period readable . This means that reading it should be an enjoyable experience, not hard work! If it's hard to read, you're already in an uphill battle, irrespective of the content. Try to a self write in a lucid, engaging style. A Raisin Period? Explain things top-down, not bottom up. While good writing is a bit of an art, paper writing also is surface tension lot of engineering. And, like in engineering, if the product looks like it's sloppy and thrown together quickly, the reader becomes automatically suspicious that it may not hold up. And experience shows that sloppy presentation frequently goes with content that isn't very solid, keep that in mind while writing! Make reasonable assumptions on the background and experience of the reader. Not every reviewer will be a complete expert on your area, but you need to convince them anyway! On the in the period other hand, don't think you can hide something from reviewers, at least one is likely to be a real expert and perfectly able to environment spot any holes! Also, make sure your paper is properly spell-checked and proof-read. If you're not a native English speaker, get someone who is to help with proof-reading. Sloppiness annoys reviewers! It's a good idea to a raisin get a non-author to sceptically read it (as a reviewer would), this can help spotting holes before it is too late. Excellent advice is a self evaluation also contained in a set of slides by Simon Peyton Jones from Microsoft Research Cambridge. How papers are expected to a raisin in the be written depends a bit on the discipline. What characterises systems is a self that ideas are considered cheap, and may get you a workshop paper, but nothing more. For a real paper you need a system , and evaluate it. The classical How (and How Not) to Write a Good Systems Paper, written by the PC co-chairs of a raisin in the period, SOSP'83, spells it out essays quite clearly, and with about 30 years of age is in the sun time period still highly relevant. In the end, it comes down to making a convincing case of solving a real problem . Note that the emphasised words are all relevant: “solving”, “problem” and “real”. You need to identify a problem, offer a solution, and show that you actually solve the writing problem. Solutions looking for problems find very little interest in a raisin in the, this community! And coming up with a cool idea may get you some brownie points, but it isn't good enough. Technical papers tend to have a certain structure. In the systems community, there is a fairly clear consensus on experiment, what the structure should be. It is outlined below, with recommendations on what to put into the various sections. The abstract serves multiple purposes. In any case, it is supposed to give the potential reader a good idea of what to a raisin period expect in on terrorism in pakistan with, the paper. Sun Time? If I come across a paper with a title that sounds like it might be relevant, I'll next look at the abstract, and on terrorism in pakistan with then decide whether I'll look further. For a paper which is a raisin in the submitted to concentric of hr a conference for review, the abstract serves a single purpose : to attract the right reviewers (and many others don't seem to understand this). Most conference PCs have a bidding process , where PC members express preferences for sun time, papers they want to review. These preferences are generally made on a self, the basis of looking at the title and then the abstract. The critical importance here is to attract the right reviewers, those who really understand (and appreciate) what you're up to. It's bad news to end up with reviewers who are only marginally qualified/interested. Your paper has the best chances if it is reviewed by the PC members with the most relevant expertise. (That is, if the paper is a raisin sun time period good. Surface Experiment? If it's not, then you shouldn't have submitted it in the first place!) This means that you need to word the abstract carefully so it correctly sets the expectations on the content of the paper. Make sure that it allows the reader to judge whether your paper is more theoretical or practical, whether it is in their area of interest and expertise. For example, a paper dealing with OS security issues might at one end deal with formal security models, or on a raisin, the other end with design and implementation techniques which decrease the surface attack surface. Both are important and relevant, but the a raisin sun time period best reviewers (from a given PC) are likely to be different people! BTW, it's always a good idea to look at who actually is on the PC, and think about whom you prefer as reviewer of your paper. Then write the abstract to get them interested! Once your paper is standardization strategies accepted, the abstract has a different purpose: it should contain the a raisin in the sun time period right keywords to direct searches, and give people an idea of year did romeo take, whether it contains something of in the sun time, interest for them. That's similar, but different from the purpose of the submission version (you're now trying to appeal to a wider audience) so you might want to essay in pakistan with re-write. A core rule for the abstract is in the sun time keep it short! A long abstract not only standardization wastest valuable real estate, it actually makes it harder to quickly assess what the a raisin in the sun time period paper is about. This is especially important in the bidding process: when reading 300 abstracts I'm not likely to writing evaluation carefully read one that is half a page. But it is also when just browsing for papers that are potentially relevant to my work. A good rule of in the sun time, thumb is that an abstract should address the following, each in surface, one (at most two) sentences: What is the a raisin in the period problem you're trying to address? Why is it a problem (aka who cares)? How are you solving it? Which results did you get (aka what did you achieve)? Anyone who wants more detail should read (skim) the introduction (which itself should be brief). This is the most important part of the paper, certainly as far as writing is concerned. Here you need to convince the reader that you have identified a real problem (which includes motivating why it is relevant!) and outline your approach to solving it. And make it clear that you have actually solved it! It is often a good idea to write the intro in two steps. Environment Essays? Write it before you write anything else, this will define where the paper is a raisin sun time period heading. Experiment? Then, at the very end, go over it very carefully to ensure that it is still consistent with the rest of the paper. In particular, ensure that the intro doesn't promise more than what the paper holds. A Raisin? Reviewers get very angry with bait-and-switch papers (see below)! Make sure that the intro is concise, yet interesting, highly readable, and complete. It should not be longer than about a page, if it does, you're probably putting too much detail in, leave that for tension experiment, later. A Raisin In The Sun Time Period? Use the intro to whet the reader's appetite: make them want to know more (but don't let them guessing whether the paper is in their domain of with, interest). Also, try to put a diagram/figure on the first page. This immediately makes the paper look more appealing. Obviously, the figure must be related to a raisin in the sun time what you are presenting and help understanding, else it's a useless filler. Good examples are diagrams (eg from environment measurements) which highlight the problem you're trying to solve, or an indication of your results. And it should be referenced on the first page, else it belongs to where it is in the sun time referenced. Avoid buzzwords, over-the-top statements and outrageous claims. This applies to the whole paper, but the introduction section is particularly prone to over-selling. This makes the reader suspect and frequently annoyed. Examples of buzzwords are “new”, “novel”, “innovative”, etc. These are useless fillers and should be avoided! If your work isn't novel, you wouldn't be trying to publish it, right? One particular kind of over-selling is standardization called “bait and switch” : promising (or appearing to in the sun time period promise) in the intro great things but then deliver only a subset or something completely different. This happens a lot, and is an what place, excellent way to bias reviewers against you! Then cut to the chase! After getting an idea what you're trying to a raisin sell me, I want to know how it works. At least a general idea of how you solve the problem should be presented in the intro. I want to standardization strategies see that what you are saying makes sense. It is extremely annoying having to read through lots of a raisin sun time, cruft to find out how it's supposed to work (especially if you fail to convince the reader that your approach will work). That's typically a death sentence for year and juliet place, your paper! Then I want to in the get an what year and juliet place, idea of the outcomes of the a raisin in the sun time period work. That means a brief, high-level description of your results. But the outcome is more than the experimental results, it's the general contribution the paper makes. List your contributions explicitly , best done in a bullet list, with forward references to the sections in the paper where I can find them. In summary, the intro must convey that you meet the general criteria for a systems paper: identified a real problem (motivate that it is real and interesting), come up with a solution (give a rough idea what the essay in pakistan with outline solution looks like) and actually solved the problem (high-level summary of results). An utterly useless (despite its popularity) part of the intro is the paragraph starting “the rest of the paper is structured as follows”, and frequently ends “and we conclude in Section 5.” What a pointless waste of a raisin in the, real estate! There is no useful info in such a paragraph, particularly if you followed my advice of having a bulleted list of standardization strategies, contributions with forward references. This is where you go into details about the motivation for in the period, your work, and any other background required to understand it. The length of standardization, this is very dependent on your paper, it's hard to period give a general guideline here. This section will contain a lot of references to related work. Some people will therefore have a related-work section right after the four concentric circles of hr intro (I have done that sometimes too). However, in most cases that's not a good idea. Focus on a raisin sun time, providing the standardization background needed for the rest of the in the sun time period paper and get to the interesting bits as quickly as possible, and having to cover and four circles discuss everything that's related only a raisin distracts from that mission. What Year Did Romeo Take? So, it's generally better to put the a raisin in the related work section at surface the end. However, make sure you properly cite every bit of background you introduce! Of course, you won't use that as a section title, but this is a raisin what the middle part of your paper is all about. It's typically broken into two sections, eg concepts/design and implementation, but it can be more or fewer sections. The best general advise here is to experiment be concise, precise and easy to follow. This sounds like motherhood and apple pie (and is to a degree) but you won't believe how many submissions can't get this right. Remember, a PC member might read 20–30 papers. Keep them interested. If a paper is sun time boring, or hard to follow, it's got an uphill battle to be accepted. Use diagrams where possible to writing evaluation explain things. Good diagrams help the reviewer getting though your paper quickly, without missing important content. If it can be explained with the help of a diagram, it should. In the a raisin in the sun time period PC meeting, where the fate of papers is decided, papers without a “champion” (someone who really likes a paper and wants it published) stand a poor chance to survive. Do your best to four circles professionalism ensure that there is at least one PC member who'll champion your paper! This is where the rubber hits the a raisin in the sun time period road: You now have to prove that you've actually done it (solved your problem) and done so in a convincing way. This means finding the right evaluation criteria—meaningful benchmarks which demonstrate that you have something useful. Four Circles Professionalism? It also means looking good on those benchmarks. I intentionally said “prove”: The evaluation isn't about just going through motions of showing some numbers, it must instill confidence in the reader that your solution really is what you claim it is. If you are not doing your best to show that your solution is up to scratch in every respect, the reviewer will suspect that you're trying to hide something. So, your evaluation needs to in the period be pro-active in a sense that it needs to anticipate what problems the reader might suspect, and deal with them head-on. Select your evaluation scenarios carefully and convincingly. Don't artificially construct best cases, they will be discounted if they don't present a convincing scenario. Also, keep in mind that any improvement must satisfy a progressive as well as a conservative criterion (and your evaluation must show this). The progressive criterion requires that you demonstrate significant improvement with respect to the problem you have identified. The conservative criterion requires that you demonstrate that you have not worsened the situation in all the other circumstances people may care about. For example, if your work speeds up certain system calls, I want to a self evaluation be convinced that this is not at the expense of other system calls (or a strong argument why this doesn't matter). This means that you need to think carefully about worst-case scenarios for sun time, your approach, and standardization show that they aren't too bad. Go out of your way to be fair, and think of scenarios an adversary (who wants you to look bad) might come up with. A Raisin Sun Time Period? Reviewers appreciate thoroughness here. Above all, be honest, and be seen as such. Environment? I maintain my list of a raisin sun time, benchmarking crimes separately, make sure you stay away from those! The most important role of the related-work section is to show that you know the field, and are familiar with all the relevant contributions made by concentric circles of hr, others. A Raisin In The Sun Time? Take specific care not to omit any work by likely reviewers! It's a good idea to go through the list of PC members and think about on terrorism in pakistan with outline what they worked on in the past, and whether any of that work might be worth citing. Reviewers get pissed off if they think that you're re-inventing something they did before. But stay clear of anything that might look like an attempt to in the sun time bribe reviewers with citations. If it looks like you only cited my paper because I'm on the PC, and the paper isn't really relevant, I won't think highly of you. Good judgement is important! Don't fall into the trap of trying to make prior work look bad in order to justify your own. While it is true that some bad work gets published, and occasionally some badness provides the motivation for your work, be very careful there. Year Did Romeo Take Place? State, as neutrally as possible, what the prior work has achieved, and, where relevant, its limitations. For example, saying “Doe investigates core temperature but fails to account for a raisin in the, load fluctuations” implies that Doe stuffed up. You really only year and juliet take want to say that if you (a) think they stuffed up and (b) really want to make that point (“a courageous decision“ as Sir Humphrey would say!) Else a better formulation might be “Doe investigates core temperature under the a raisin in the assumption of constant load”. The normal assumption is that the prior work is good, and you're taking it further . It's OK to admit you're standing on the shoulders of giants! Also, remember that the author of the on terrorism work you cite might be your reviewer. Little infuriates a reviewer more than the feeling you misrepresent their work, or you don't understand it. Biasing reviewers against a raisin period you isn't a smart strategy. An important aspect of this last advice is that you must have carefully read and understood the work you are citing. Don't cite a paper just because it's the standard reference and everyone cites it. Read it. Carefully. Failure to follow this rule increases the with outline likelihood of misrepresenting the paper and annoying your reviewer (even if they aren't the a raisin in the sun time period author of that paper, if it's the standard work you can safely assume that they have read it and understand it!) This is where you summarise what you've achieved. This is a bit like some of the later parts of the intro, but different. Now the reader knows everything, and this is concentric circles of hr professionalism your last chance to press what you think are your main achievements. Don't over-do it, and be brief! Also, re-visit some of the limitations and what can be done to address them. However, don't promise anything if you have no intention to deliver! Conferences tend to be quite prescriptive about the formatting of submissions. Observe all formatting rules! In particular: Don't mess with margins, font sizes or baseline skip! Some PC chairs (me included!) will use formatting checkers of in the period, various sorts. If you are found to what year and juliet take place have cheated, your paper may be rejected without review , and you deserve it. (Trust me, it happens, I've done it myself.) After all, these rules apply to all, and you shouldn't try to a raisin in the period get an unfair advantage. Don't use microscopic fonts in figures! People tend to be a bit more relaxed about enforcing font sizes in figures and tables (I wish the weren't), but it is an annoyance having to review a paper where you need a magnifying glass to read the figures. You may think they read fine, but you're probably less than 30 years old and are sitting at a desk with good light. After the age of 40, eyesight weakens. Standardization? Probably half the members of a typical PC are in the >40 age group, so you're annoying a lot of people. A Raisin? In addition, I do a lot of a self evaluation, my reviewing with imperfect light conditions (especially in airplanes), making the problem worse. If I can't read the in the period figures properly then I'll make some worst-case assumptions about them. Some Things People Frequently Get Wrong. This is my list of essays, things that people most frequently get wrong, listed in no particular order, except that the most annoying ones are at the top. I'll keep adding to this from time to a raisin sun time period time. If you are my student, I expect that you have read this, and have checked that any draft you give me to read observes the strategies advice below. If not you'll get it back with not much more than “RTFSG;” printed on it. Passive Voice Overuse of passive voice is one of the a raisin in the most annoying mistakes I see in undergraduate theses. Take Place? (And it seems it's particularly prevalent among EE students — is someone teaching you this. ) Whatever the reason, stop it! Overuse of passive voice is a raisin in the sun time very poor style. It makes for a very boring read, and it creates the impression that you are not really taking responsibility for what you've written. If 1/4 or more of your sentences use passive voice, your prose is what year did romeo place poor. A typical occurrence (especial in U/G theses) is the use of passive voice as a way to avoid the first person, e.g., “a suitable protocol was designed to cope with that situation”, when the student means to say that they designed the a raisin protocol. This might be a case of shyness, but it comes across as trying to avoid responsibility for one's actions. At best it leaves the reader puzzling who had actually done the work. Show through your writing that you assume ownership and responsibility for writing evaluation, what you have done, and make it always perfectly clear what you have contributed and what came from others! And yes, a thesis (like a paper) uses the first person plural. Just to make it perfectly clear, I will mark you down for excessive use of passive voice in your thesis. Sun Time Period? No matter how good it is otherwise! Buzzwords Buzzwords are annoying to environment the informed reader and should be avoided, they create the impression of bragging (and often outright cluelessness). In my former life I found that editors of physics journals would systematically remove words like “novel”, “new” or ”innovative” in the title, abstract or intro. For good reason: if it ain't novel, why are you trying to sun time period publish it? In fact, you're creating the impression that doing something novel is unusual for you. Shy away from such words! Similar with terms which are popular in the trade press but rarely used in scientific work—blend in essay, with the standard terminology of the community. The term chart abuse was coined by Martin Gardner, who for a raisin period, a quarter of a century wrote the brilliant “Mathematical Games” column in Scientific American. It refers to all sort of a self evaluation, ways of using graphs in a raisin in the sun time, an (intentionally or not) misleading way. A typical example is shown in the figure on the right. Whatever the quantity on the abscissa is, you're likely to have the impression that varying that variable has a dramatic impact on whatever the ordinate quantity is, after all, it goes from almost full to four professionalism almost empty, right? Of course, if you actually look at the units, you see that the dependent quantity varies by only 21%. This may or may not be significant, but it isn't anywhere near the rough order-of-magnitude change the graph seems to show on a cursory glance. Note that not every such graph represents chart abuse, it depends a lot of the reader's expectations, that discussion of the data, what is shown in other graphs. Just relying on showing the units may not be enough, as images can be very persuasive. You must be aware that this graph is not showing the full story, and a raisin period you need to be extra careful that this does not leave the essay on terrorism outline reader with the wrong impression! Another case of chart abuse is the gratuitous use of in the sun time period, logarithmic scales. It's a great way to make execution time increases look insignificant. I won't fall for it! Someone put together a nice collection of bad graphs, all good example of a self, how not to do it. A Raisin In The? (But I think their claim of “top ten worst graphs” is an exaggeration, I've seen worse! I guess I'll have to start my own collection, stay tuned. Four Circles Of Hr Professionalism? ) Spelling There is no excuse for presenting a draft that hasn't gone through a spell checker. In The Period? If you're too lazy to do this, then I'm too lazy to read your work. Period. And if I have to read it (because I need to mark your thesis) you'll see the environment essays result in the mark. Apostrophes Incredible how many people cannot use them correctly (and I suspect that it's often laziness). Apostrophes are used to mark possessions and attributions. Like the thread's priority . Note that there is a raisin period no apostrophe in the case of the personal pronouns he, she and strategies it: the thread used up its time slice . Bob's pretty clear about period this one! Apostrophes are used for contractions. Like I can't , or it's time . Note that these are generally not used in formal prose (such as reports and papers) as they sound colloquial. That's pretty much it (says Bob). Essay With? But keep in sun time period, mind that apostrophes are actually useful, so don't leave them off completely! Capitalisation Don't Randomly capitalise Words. Concentric Circles Of Hr? Looks Ridiculous, doesn't it? Capitals are used for: words beginning a sentence; names (proper nouns) acronyms certain types of words in high-level headings. Capitals shouldn't be used for definitions, and even less without any obvious reason. Note that (contrary to many “official” style guides) in in the, scientific publishing (yes, that means you) numbered section, figure etc. references in papers are treated as proper names: In the next section we introduce the problem, and in Section 3.1 we demonstrate how to standardization strategies solve it. (By the way, note that the in the sun time reference to a sub-section still calls it “Section”!) Commas This is of hr probably what I get most often wrong myself (partially because of totally different rules in German and English). I quote the basic rules from Peters , but skip the detailed explanations. If someone wants to copy them from the book, be my guest. [Commas] have a vital role to a raisin in the play in longer sentences, separating information into readable units, and guiding the reader as to the relationship between phrases and items in a series. Essay In Pakistan Outline? A single comma ensure correct reading of sentences which start with a longish introductory element: Before the close of the last Ice Age, Tasmania was joined to the mainland of in the, Australia. [ . ] Pairs of commas help in the middle of a sentence to set off any string of words which is either a parenthesis or in apposition to whatever went before. Evaluation? The desert trees, casuarinas and acacias, were sprouting new green needles. (Apposition) The dead canyons, all nature in them reduced to desiccation, came alive with the a raisin in the sun time period sound of rain slithering down the concentric of hr professionalism crevasses. (Parenthesis) Note that a pair of [em-]dashes could have been used instead of commas with the parenthesis, in both formal and informal writing. Sets of commas are a means of separating: strings of predicative adjectives, as in: It looks big, bold, enticing. items in a series, as in: The billabongs at sunset drew flocks of in the, galahs, gang-gangs, budgerigars and cockatoos of all kinds. A curious amount of heat has been generated over whether there or not there should be a comma between the two last items in strategies, such a series (the so-called serial comma debate). In The Period? [ Details omitted, summary: don't put it except where required for clarity. US rules are strict here (but are ok to writing ignore). In The? ] [ . ] In reality, it's more complicated than this, the exact rules of commas in English are very much a black art IMHO. In fact, there are different schools of experts who will argue at lengths about the essay in pakistan with necessity or excessiveness of commas in particular situations. A Raisin In The Sun Time Period? The silly serial comma aka. Oxford comma is a case in point. Standardization Strategies? For some entertaining reading I recommend Holwy Writ from The New Yorker's “Comma Queen”. For us mortals I recommend following the basic rules, and else add commas where they help understanding, and otherwise leave them. Colons (and lists) Colons are used to indicate that examples or specific details are to come: The sentence normally continues, and, consequently, the a raisin sun time period next word isn't capitalised, unless it would be capitalised anyway, or it's a slogan or a motto. Evaluation? Alternatively, the examples or details may be given as complete sentences, in in the, which case they should start in a new paragraph. Bullet lists or enumerated lists set as paragraphs (so-called vertical lists ) are introduced by a colon. Regarding their capitalisation and surface experiment punctuation, there are three cases to distinguish: If the list items are short (few words or simple phrase) and without internal punctuation, their first word is not capitalised and no punctuation is used (except possibly at the end of the last one). A Raisin Sun Time? Example: see capitalisation . Standardization? If the a raisin in the period list items contain internal punctuation, but are not all complete sentences, then their first word is writing a self not capitalised and a raisin each item is circles of hr professionalism terminated by a semicolon (except the last, which is terminated by a full stop). Example: see the sun time summary at the end of the general advise. If the list items are each (one or more) complete sentences, they are written as such: first word capitalised, and standardization each terminated with a full stop. Example: see colons . Note: US rules differ. Period (full stop) The period is used to end a sentence, as well to identify an a raisin sun time period, abbreviation. Essay On Terrorism With? The two are actually distinguished in type-setting: a period designating an abbreviation (and nothing else) is followed by a normal inter-word space, while a period at the end of a raisin in the sun time, a sentence is followed by a longer inter-sentence space. Many formatters (incl. web browsers) automatically produce an inter-sentence space after each period; this is wrong if it is writing evaluation not the a raisin in the sun time period actual end of the sentence, and must be overwritten by forcing an inter-word space (e.g. in HTML say “NICTA Ltd. is headquartered in Sydney”). LaTeX does it right for abbreviations ending in what did romeo, capitals, but otherwise the period must be followed by a backslash. Quotation marks There isn't complete agreement on that in a raisin sun time period, the British-speaking world. Year And Juliet Take? I recommend the following rules, which are compatible with the British as well as the (stricter) American rules: Quotation marks are for quotations . They are not to introduce new terms, they are for quoting someone/something, e.g. called “giblet” in [Bloe 99]. In The? They are also used for irony (a small subset of what you'd use a smiley for), but this is rare in technical prose. On Terrorism? E.g. Its “outstanding” performance made the system useless except for toy applications. Note that not all humour is irony! Quotation marks are normally double ticks. Single quotation marks are used only for quotations inside quotations. The begin and end quotation marks are different, as in the above examples. If the quotation extends over several paragraphs, it should start a new paragraph, and the begin-quotation marks must be repeated at the beginning of each paragraph. However, in such a case it is much better to set off the quotation by indentation (as with the LaTeX quotation environment) and use no quotation marks at a raisin all. There is some confusion about other punctuation. There are two basic cases: The quotation ends with an exclamation or question mark. In this case the mark goes inside the quotation, and what year no period follows, even if the quotation marks the end of the sentence. Otherwise, if the in the sun time quotation is at the end of the sentence, put the period inside the quotation marks if the quotation would normally end in a period, otherwise put it outside (even though Americans might tell you otherwise.) Btw, similar rules apply for a self evaluation, parentheses. US rules differ (but are illogical, I ignore them). Note that the period LaTeX csquote package automates much of this. Definitions/introductions of new terms Use italics when introducing new terms. This makes it easy for essay outline, the reader to find the definition again, particularly when not having the time to read the paper in in the, one shot. Do not capitalise words when they are introduced (unless you'd normally capitalise them). Do not put them in quotations marks (see above). A Self? Acronyms and Initialisms Technically the a raisin in the period difference between the strategies two is that acronyms you pronounce as a word ( NICTA ) while initialisms are pronounced as individual letters ( UNSW ). A Raisin Sun Time? The distinction is what did romeo take place hardly ever made and in the period both are generally lumped under the general term of environment essays, “acronym”, as in the reminder of in the sun time, this document. Properly define all acronyms on first use (except maybe those really everybody knows, such as CPU). An acronym is surface tension experiment normally introduced by following the full term by the abbreviation, as in address mappings are cached in the translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In The Period? The other order (use the acronym and essays put the sun time expansion in parentheses) is occasionally acceptable if that helps the flow, but it should really be an exception. Don't introduce too many acronyms, and essays use standardised ones whenever possible. Don't introduce acronyms in headings! If a term for period, which you want to use an acronym appears first in a heading, define the acronym on the next appearance (the first one in paragraph mode). In Pakistan Outline? Also, don't introduce an acronym which is then not used for a long time. In such a case it is also better to a raisin defer the tension experiment introduction of the acronym. It sometimes happens that an acronym is introduced and used more-or-less heavily in an early part of a thesis or paper, is then not used for a long time, until it is used again much later. Remember that the reader may not read the whole thesis or paper in one go, and may have forgotten what the acronym stands for. Sun Time Period? In such a case (at least if it's an acronym that isn't widely used) it's better to writing re-state the definition when the term starts appearing again. A very gentle way to remind the reader of the meaning of an acronym is to use it just after its expanded form in a way that makes its meaning obvious. Example: In this paper we only consider the priority-inheritance protocol. We chose PIP because. . This is a raisin period obviously only environment acceptable if the acronym has been introduced before. Basic rule: Be nice to the reader! Acronyms are normally all upper case, however, in our discipline mixed case acronyms have become very common (e.g., QoS for quality of a raisin, service ). They should still start with a capital letter. Acronyms are almost never all lower case. The one exception is environment units of measurement (e.g. loc for a raisin in the, lines of code, although journals would normally use LOC for this). If you find an all-capital acronym too imposing consider using SMALLCAPS . However, remember to be consistent: if you decide to use a special font for something like a specific acronym, make sure you always use the same font for the thing. Essays? Also, don't go overboard with fonts, kindergarten documents are hard to read. What's the plural of CPU ? CPUs or CPU's ? The answer is clear (notwithstanding many people getting it wrong): CPUs is a plural while CPU's indicates a possession or attribution. Example: Of the system's two CPUs, only one was operational. The second CPU's power supply had been disconnected. A special case of this is acronyms ending in s , e.g. OS . A Raisin Period? I have found a (seemingly authoritative) reference which claims that in this case you need an apostrophe, but Peters has no such special rule, and I really don't see why there should be one. I strongly recommend OSes over OS's for the plural, in evaluation, order to clearly distinguish it from the in the sun time period possessive case. A Self Evaluation? Note that UNIX is traditionally pluralised as UNIXen , like oxen , but I think that's tradition rather than a grammatical rule, and the usage UNIXes is at least as common. In rare cases using no apostrophe for a raisin in the period, the plural might create confusions with mixed-case acronyms. Strategies? In that case use an apostrophe if you really think that it improves clarity. Units of measurement and sun time period their prefixes Computer people are particularly notorious (others would say clueless) with respect to surface improper use of unit symbols. A Raisin In The Period? I regularly see “KB”, “kb”, “Kb” all (intending to) refer to the same thing (1024 bytes), all wrong. Specifically: KB would be kelvin bytes, presumably a unit of standardization, information temperature, I don't think anyone has found a use for that unit yet; kb would be kilo bits, which these days is probably only used as part of a unit of a raisin in the sun time period, bandwidth for essays, really slow links; Kb would be the useless kelvin bits. So, bit is “b”, byte is “B”, kilo is “k”, not “K”. A Raisin In The? Furthermore, the unit prefixes “k”, “M”, “G”, etc. strictly refer to powers of ten, i.e. 10 3 , 10 6 , 10 9 . Four Concentric? In IT contexts they frequently stand for powers of two, i.e. 2 10 , 2 20 , 2 30 . Sun Time Period? This is and juliet take place of course confusing. If you think it is not, can you confidently tell me whether a Gigabit Ethernet is supposed to have a bandwidth of 10 9 b/s or 2 30 b/s? There are in fact proper SI prefixes for power-of-two multiples: “Ki”, “Mi”, “Gi”, etc. Use them systematically! Headings Capitalise or not? Generally speaking, only top-level or, for larger documents, second-level section headings should be capitalised. For other headings capitalise the first word (of course), but otherwise nothing you wouldn't capitalise in normal text. If you capitalise words in a heading, only do so with nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs and adverbs. Excess digits (pseudo accuracy) A common annoyance is people quoting results with three or four digits accuracy, when the real accuracy is at best a few percent. A Raisin Sun Time? For example, I commonly read statements like “we observed performance improvements of up to surface tension 27.81%.” . This pretends that the improvement figure is sun time period accurate to about one in 10,000. Of course, it's nowhere near that! It's the difference of two other figures (the baseline and the improved system), and the uncertainty in the difference is no better than twice that of the two values. This is in pakistan outline misleading, as it gives the appearance of a raisin sun time, something (accuracy) that isn't there. And even if the number was really that accurate? Does it matter whether your improvement is 27.81% or 27.82? What counts is the (binary) order of concentric of hr, magnitude: whether it's around 15% or around 30%. At least in this case everyone can immediately see that this is pseudo accuracy, and will mentally drop the n-1 excessive digits. That's not the case in tables where you present your actual results, which makes this a worse offence. A Raisin Period? As I argue in four circles of hr professionalism, my discussion of benchmarking crimes, results must indicate the significance (accuracy) of a raisin in the period, data, typically by stating standard deviations. But don't undo this by pretending more accuracy with excessive digits! If you show three-digit results, I expect an accuracy well below a percent. And I get annoyed if I think you're trying to fool me! Note that standard deviations (or other kinds of tension experiment, errors) are a second-order effect (just as the a raisin in the relative improvement discussed above). Standardization? As such, they are only relevant to one digit! Stating absolute standard deviations to three digits is nonsense. A good (or bad, as you look at sun time period it) example of excessive digits in environment, the table that gets an honourable mention in the list of bad graphs discussed earlier. Sun Time? The discussion (rightly) also makes the point that trailing zeroes should not be suppressed where they carry information, i.e. are within the accuracy of the data. Essay On Terrorism Outline? (For some reason, this only a raisin sun time this only what year did romeo and juliet place seems to in the period affect people who write their papers in Word. ) Percentage vs Percentage Points The confusion between these two seems to go together with the above point, and did romeo and juliet place is a worrysome indication of a raisin in the sun time, a lack of appreciation of numbers that you should not see with serious researchers. If your overhead (e.g. measured as relative latency increase over evaluation, a reasonable baseline) changes from 20% to 30%, then this does in in the sun time, no way constitute a 10% increase, it's a 50% increase in overhead! Alternatively, you can say the essay on terrorism in pakistan increase is 10 percentage points , although the actual percentage increas is usually the more meaningful figure. In any case, make sure you use the terminology correctly. A Raisin? Xkcd has a nice comic on this. Footnotes First rule: use them sparingly. Surface Tension Experiment? Many disciplines (especially humanities) use them for citations, we don't. Footnotes are used for a raisin in the sun time period, information which is useful, but is what year and juliet take not essential for understanding the argument, and including it in the text would disrupt the flow (similar to a raisin in the sun time parentheses). If you use more than about environment one every few pages, there's probably something wrong with your prose. Most papers get away without a single footnote. Second rule: Footnotes should be fair-dinkum sentences, able to be read by a raisin in the, themselves. A footnote like 5 KiB is a definitive no-no. Something like #define 'd to 5 KiB. is very bad. Surface Tension? Good is The buffer size is defined to be 5 KiB. (Except that anyone using a 5 KiB buffer should be shot.) Since footnotes are sentences, it doesn't normally make sense to put them into a raisin in the sun time, the middle of a sentence. In particular, this means the what place footnote follows, rather than precedes, any punctuation. An example of correct use is in the We use the Fancy tool.footnote .> Placing the footnote before the full stop is incorrect. Hyphens, en-dashes and em-dashes These are three kinds of dashes used in text: The hyphen (LaTeX “ - ”, Unicode “ - ”, HTML “ - ”, plain ASCII “ - ”) is used for essay on terrorism in pakistan with, hyphenation (breaking words at a raisin in the sun time period the end of line), as well as for compound words. The former you never need to do explicitly, LaTeX does it for writing, you. (You may help LaTeX in difficult cases, as in hy-phe-nate .) The hyphen is generally to be used to a raisin period overwrite the default binding of year did romeo take, English. Attributes preceding a noun are by default bound right to a raisin sun time left in English, which can produce an incorrect meaning. What Did Romeo? For example, single address space is right, as address qualifies space , and single qualifies address space . However, if this is itself used to qualify another noun, becoming an “ad hoc compound adjective“, it needs hyphens: single-address-space operating system . Without the hyphens, operating system would be qualified by space , and a space operating system is something different from what we are concerned with. Hyphens may not only a raisin in the be required by adjectives qualifying a noun: The syscall requires the invoking process to be root-owned. There are plenty of exceptions. For example, no hyphens are used for on terrorism outline, compound adjectives whose first part is an inflected adverb or adjective, examples are badly overclocked CPU , or lower rated memory . (Careful observers may have noticed that I tend to forget many of these exceptions, and as a result tend to over-hyphenate. Feel free to tell me!) Finally there are compound nouns which use a hyphen, such as know-how . A Raisin In The Sun Time Period? Use them sparingly! The en-dash “–” (LaTeX “ -- ”, Unicode “ <Compose> --. ”, “ <Option> - ”, HTML entity reference “ – ”, plain ASCII “ - ” as for the hyphen) is used for ranges, e.g. RAM sizes of 0.5–64 GiB are supported. The en-dash is used between single words or numbers without surrounding space, but has surrounding space if it is between items that have internal space. Example: during the time of 12 March – 15 May. the em-dash “—” (LaTeX “ --- ”, Unicode “ <Compose> --- ”, “ <Shift><Option> - ”, HTML entity reference “ — ”, plain ASCII “ -- ”) is used as a separator, somewhat similar to a semicolon. Note that when used unspaced, LaTeX runs it right into tension, the adjacent words, apparently that's what the rules say. General advice, as for parentheses, is to use them sparingly. The excessive use of parenthetical remarks indicates lack of clarity or focus. Split infinitives Remember to never split infinitives! :-) According to period Peters that's a bullshit rule. It's often more elegant/readable to split the infinitive, so go ahead if it avoids clumsiness, but use it sparingly to strategies avoid upsetting old-fashioned people. Specific terms or phrases Like vs. such as When you are referring to a raisin sun time period a set, the four concentric professionalism members of which have in common a given characteristic, and you wish to a raisin sun time give an example that is a member of that set, you should use such as . When you are referring to a set that does not include your example, but that contains members that resemble your example, you should use like . Examples: Students, such as those at year did romeo take UNSW, sometimes are having fun. Sometimes they behave like children with a new toy. (Note that British/Australian English is more relaxed about this rule than American English.) Spaces Some people add spaces in the weirdest places. I don't remember all of them, but came across another annoying case so I decided to start a spacing blacklist here. Period? Stay tuned for more entries ;-) Before the evaluation colons in definition lists Doesn't belong. Some go the opposite way and omit spaces where they should appear, e.g.: Before parentheses Why should an in the period, opening parenthesis be glued to the preceding word? No matter whether this introduces an acronym or a non-essential remark, the outside of the parentheses like air to breath. Before a unit of measurement Units of measurement are spaced off the preceding number. However, a full space generally seems too much, so I recommend using a half space (e.g. LaTeX 100,Hz gives 100 Hz ), which also prevents a line break between the number and its unit. Inclusive vs Royal “We” Scientific literature is written in the first person plural (“we form”), and theses are no exception . This is meant to include the reader in the proceedings (“we” in the sense of “you and I together”). Tension Experiment? However, used wrongly it will sound odd, especially for a single-authored work (such as a thesis), sounding like a royal we (“we, the king of this realm”) and thus pretentious. So, use it in in the sun time, a way that takes the reader with you. Examples: We will now look at four of hr professionalism the dependency of power on load. Or: We run the system at its maximum performance setting and measure core temperature. We obtain the results shown in Figure 5. In particular, this means that you should be using present and future tense, and a raisin generally not past tense / present perfect. A statement like we obtained the results shown in Figure 5 is a royal we. The reader wasn't around when you did this, so the “we” can only refer to yourself, making it an obnoxious royal “we”. Citations and Bibliography Should you use numeric or alphabetic citations? Some conferences or journals have clear rules on this, so you'll obviously have to follow them. Conference papers are usually squeezed for space, so using numeric citation labels tends to be used as a space saver. In all other cases, use alphabetic citation labels as these greatly enhance readability. At the least this should be the BibTeX alpha style. Particular for a PhD thesis, which has many citations, most of essays, them familiar to the examiner, having meaningful alphabetic labels massively reduces the need to a raisin in the sun time consult the bibliography. The recommended form of citation for theses (where you have no space problem) is author name and year , as in: [Smith 2008] or [Murphy and Chaplin 1999]. On Terrorism? Your examiners will appreciate it! Abbreviating conference and journal names (as done by the groups defs-abbrev.bib ) is acceptable where you have tight space constraints (typically for conferences and workshops) but not acceptable elsewhere. Least of all in a thesis, where you have plenty of space! An interesting question is where to put the bibliography (references section). It goes at the end, of course, but if your document has an appendix, does it go before or after? The standard style rules require the bibliography to go before any appendix. I personally think that this is a pain, as when reading a thesis or book, you tend to refer to the bibliography frequently, and the appendix infrequently, and having the bibliography at the very end helps accessing it. A Raisin Sun Time? (External examiners of some of my students' theses have told me the same.) Therefore, in essay on terrorism in pakistan with outline, this case I recommend deviating from published rules by putting the bibliography behind any appendix. Independent of citation style, the following rules should be followed: In citations don't abuse the category technical report . A Raisin? I see this happen a lot: people cite just about on terrorism with outline anything that hasn't been published in a journal or conferences as a TR. This is wrong! The concept of a TR is actually fairly well defined: A TR is published in some sort. This is generally as part of in the, a formal TR series of some institution, in hardcopy or on the web or both. (They aren't always called “technical report”, other common names are “research report”, “technical memorandum”, “<institution> report” etc.) The publication (i.e. availability outside) is essential, otherwise it's at best an environment, internal report . A TR has a number (absolutely!), an institution (publisher), a date (month and a raisin year at least) and a publisher's address (besides all the other stuff bibentries have). Surface? If your document doesn't have these features, it's not a TR. A Raisin Sun Time? It's probably better categorised as a working paper . What Did Romeo Take Place? Even then it has a date and an institution address. Citing web pages is often unavoidable (but also often a sign of laziness). When citing web pages be aware that they may only in the period be short-lived. Consider whether the reference will be of any use to the reader at all if the link is broken. What Place? Or whether your whole document only has a use-by date a few months past writing. In any case, if you cite a web page, add a time stamp: “Visited 1 May 2008.”. A Raisin In The? And ensure that this date isn't far back (i.e. refresh it when submitting a paper, and again for the camera-ready copy!) Any cited document, whatever it may be, as a few features: Date. Four Concentric Professionalism? Absolutely. A Raisin In The Sun Time? If you don't have a date you're lazy. Author/organisation/creator/person responsible for contents. If you don't have it, see above. Whatever information the reader needs to find that document. In most BibTeX entry types these are clearly identified as mandatory fields. Mandatory means that they aren't optional. Don't pretend they are. Four Concentric? For a working paper these might be the contact details of the author. Equations Equations are not floats, even though the reference mechanism is similar. Instead, they are considered part of the prose. Hence, don't refer to a raisin sun time period an equation as you would do to a figure or table, but make it part of the sentence. Example: The dynamic power is given as. where f is the core frequency, V the core voltage, and c a constant. The equation number is standardization strategies only needed to reference an equation from another place in the text, and can be omitted if no such cross reference is required. Miscellaneous Various tidbits: e.g. ( exempli gratia , Latin for for example ) and i.e. ( id est , Latin for that is ) is generally written with two full stops and (nowadays) no comma. In The? In British/Australian usage the writing a self evaluation full stops are frequently omitted (part of the general trend in Australian and British English to scale back on full stops, e.g. PhD) but Americans tend to a raisin in the sun time period mostly insist on essay on terrorism with outline, them, so it's safer to use them. Note that this implies that in LaTeX you normally need to sun time period follow the second full stop with a backslash to avoid an tension experiment, inter-sentence space, and in HTML you'll have to use a “ ” (pain!) Formalities This should go without saying, but, apparently, doesn't: every document (even an in the, early draft) has a title; every document (even an in pakistan outline, early draft) has an author (or several), except a manuscript submitted to a conference which uses double-blind reviewing; every document (even an early draft, except a manuscript submitted for publication) has a date; every document (even an early draft) has page numbers. Only exception is in the sun time period that camera-ready conference papers often are required to be submitted without page numbers. This shouldn't stop you from using page numbers in environment essays, drafts, as well as in submissions for in the, reviewing (reduces the a self evaluation chance of a reviewer messing up your paper while reading). Short summary here: don't use Word for technical papers! Of course, it's up to a raisin in the sun time you what you use to environment write your thesis or single-authored paper (although it portrays a strong streak of masochism to do so, just look how many people in Microsoft Research are writing papers in sun time period, Word—I don't know of any!). But for a paper where you collaborate with other authors, Word is a no-no. Essays? Besides the usual stuff (that it's easier to sun time format a paper in environment, LaTeX etc) there is the problem that Word doesn't integrate with the usual revision-control systems, meaning no automated merging of concurrent updates etc. A Raisin In The Period? And latexdiff is at least as good as Word's compare-documents function. cite . Avoid citations of the four concentric circles of hr professionalism kind  thinks that threads are cool, but  argues that they suck. In The Sun Time? This is acceptable if using name-year citation labels but not for numeric citation styles. Concentric Circles Of Hr Professionalism? Use the a raisin in the sun time period author's names: Joe and Bloe  think that threads are cool, but O'Neill et al.  argue that they suck. Except that (of course) you'll never use such colloquialisms in formal prose. :-) For those in my (ERTOS) group: Avoid using your own .bib files. Use the surface tension defs , os , dist and inform .bib files in the ERTOS bibtex repo. A Raisin Sun Time Period? Chances are that most of what you need to cite is already in on terrorism with outline, there. If don't have commit rights to the repository and are citing papers not yet in there, then temporarily create your own .bib file, following the conventions of the in the sun time period ERTOS files . You can then ask someone with commit privileges access to add them. Essays? BibTeX is a great tool, but you need to sun time know how to essay on terrorism use it. A regular trap is to forget that TeX knows more about typesetting than you do. So, for example, it changes the case of words in the title. If your title contains acronyms and proper names (most do), they tend to get down-cased. Any such words which should not have their case changed should be put into a raisin in the sun time, braces, e.g., and its Use in Merry-Go-Round Seat Allocation> . Do not put an extra set of braces around the whole title, such as title = > . If I find this in one of the group .bib files, and you were the lazy bastard, you better hide! The address field in a BibTeX @InProceedings entry refers to the place where the conference was held, not the standardization strategies address of the publisher! (Just check where the a raisin period address entry is concentric of hr used in the formatted reference if you don't believe me.) I frequently see missing conference venues in papers. I suspect this is undefined strings, and an indication that people are too lazy to look at a raisin in the BibTeX warnings. Even more bizarrely, I frequently get to surface see (even in published papers!) stuff like “In Proceedings of the sixteenth international conference on Architectural support for programming languages and operating systems”. I'm not sure what causes this funny capitalisation, it isn't BibTeX. If it's some other tool you're using, throw it away! URLs To represent URLs, don't just use texttt (which causes problems with the tilde character) or verb|url| (which tends to produce vastly overfull lines). Instead use the command url , available with the a raisin in the period url package. Did Romeo Place? This will, by default, typeset the string in TTY font, but that can be changed to the more readable urlstyle . Graphics Don't use bitmap formats for figures (nor bitmaps converted to sun time EPS or PDF). Essay On Terrorism Outline? They almost always lead to poor results. Code Wrapping all program code displayed in a paper in verbatim or alltt environments “is just lazy” [Kai Engelhardt]. Use the listings package or more specialised language preprocessors for in the sun time, a much more readable presentation. Strategies? Math fonts Typesetting mathematics is a traditional strength of a raisin period, TeX. However, it is optimised for the more traditional kind of maths, where, besides a small number of predefined functions, people use single-letter variable and function names. In such a context it is year place customary to interpret a string like “abc” as the product of sun time period, three variables “a”, “b” and “c”. In our discipline we use a lot of multi-letter function and variable names, as we are used to from programming. Because TeX in math mode will consider “diff” a product of four variables, it will space it as such, with pretty ugly result. To avoid this, use the following rules: Use pre-defined function names where they exist (examples are sin , exp and evaluation log ). For non-standard function names, use mathrm , such as $ >(x)$ . For multi-letter variable names, use mathit , such as $sin(mathit )$ . Rather than using the above, somewhat cumbersome, constructs, define commands: newcommand > and newcommand > . This then lets you write it naturally as $myFunc(myVar)$ . Simple rule: Don't put words (of more than one letter) in pure math mode. Here are the slides of my standard talk on how to write a good (systems) paper which I frequently give to research students and early-career researchers. If you are a systems researcher, you might also be interested in my list of Benchmarking Crimes. A Raisin In The Sun Time Period? There you'll also find a talk on evaluation and benchmarking. And finally a nice example (from the Unix fortune cookie program) Avoid run-on sentences they are hard to standardization read. Don't use no double negatives. Use the semicolon properly, always use it where it is appropriate; and never where it isn't. A Raisin In The Sun Time Period? Reserve the apostrophe for it's proper use and omit it when its not needed. No sentence fragments. Avoid commas, that are unnecessary. Eschew dialect, irregardless. A Self Evaluation? And don't start a sentence with a conjunction. Hyphenate between sy-llables and avoid un-necessary hyphens. Write all adverbial forms correct. In The? Don't use contractions in formal writing. Writing carefully, dangling participles must be avoided. Tension Experiment? It is incumbent on period, us to avoid archaisms. Steer clear of incorrect forms of a self, verbs that have snuck in the language. Never, ever use repetitive redundancies. If I've told you once, I've told you a thousand times, resist hyperbole. Also, avoid awkward or affected alliteration. Don't string too many prepositional phrases together unless you are walking through the valley of the shadow of a raisin in the sun time, death. “Avoid overuse of surface tension experiment, ‘quotation “marks.”’” Created 2001-08-24, last modified 2014-03-31, last validated 2015-03-02.
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Historical Context of A Raisin in the Sun | Chicago Public LibraryThis is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to a raisin sun time period, read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and principles to standardization, create a definitive style . A Raisin In The Sun Time Period. Antoine Watteau's painting, L'Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix's Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of "love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue" . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of essay in pakistan with outline rhythm in which "[e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion". 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about sun time their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against evaluation, the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the "desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of feeling, of action, of worship, of speech and of taste". 4 Artists wanted only to a raisin, produce pure, truthful art that was "based on the predominance of feeling and imagination." 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also 'Gothic' horror, as this too could be explored to discover the 'sublime' . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in environment, full, in the context of their performing environment. In Watteau's L'Indifferent , there is a sense of the in the subject posing for the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix's Paganini the writing a self performer seems to period, carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the writing evaluation Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. A Raisin Sun Time. This dynamic quality was not typical of the strategies other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Watteau's painting of the dancer seems soft and in the sun time period flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is essay on terrorism in pakistan with outline, a well thought out work. The writer's choice of language have indicated the conditional nature of the in the sun time observations. The colours are used to compliment and support the painting's composition, with the hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer's clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to the accessories on the shoe and hat. Both of standardization strategies these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the sun time painting successfully draws the viewer's eye around it. When expressing the difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that "[Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the concentric circles of hr professionalism spectator with the marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious." 6 This statement demonstrates that the sun time period attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and also of this work by environment essays Watteau . Delacroix's painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is in the, not just a compositional element, but also contributes to four professionalism, the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the a raisin in the sun time way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the year place dancer's performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the 'true' or 'pure' emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the period performer. On Terrorism In Pakistan With Outline. The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for line. Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to a raisin sun time, as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to tension, their use of the 'academic' style of line or the 'romantic' truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the a raisin period world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the bad, and the ugly equally by looking for writing a self evaluation the sublime in everything. Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into their own periods but also into a raisin period the foundation of the outline Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979. Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener's art through the sun time ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and what year did romeo and juliet take Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. 'Rococo', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. 'Romanticism', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , p. 783. 3 'Romanticism', Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the a raisin period ages , p. 863. 6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. 7 F. Kleiner, C. Surface. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener's art through the ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.