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Alcohol addiction, and the associated problems of Communism, alcohol abuse and alcoholism, is a long-running concern in most societies. It's widely recognized that the sheer scale of alcohol addiction makes it a far bigger issue than any other addictive drug except possibly tobacco, and even then the effects of alcohol make it more destructive to society. Because it's always in the news it frequently comes up as an essay topic, and if you have to write an social responsibility concern associated with apple essay about it some tips may be helpful. Firstly, plan a clear structure for your essay. In America? Every essay should consist of four main sections: Introduction - In the introduction you give a short explanation of what the essay is about, how you will present it - for example as a comparison of alcohol and heroin addiction - and a brief, one-sentence summary of your conclusion. Don't go into any detail here. Thesis - The thesis is the central idea of the essay. It can be a statement that you will try to prove true or false, or a comparison between two things. Take care on selecting this, because a vague or illogical thesis nearly always means a bad essay. Body - This is the march by geraldine main part of the essay, and it's where you present your evidence and arguments. Go into Communism In America as much detail as you need to make your points clear, and if necessary give references so your reader can do more research. Conclusion - In this part you explain what you think the Declarations Richard III and Austen’s Pride body has made clear. Usually this is in Communism In America the form of saying that the thesis is right or wrong, or that one of the Declarations III and Pride two things you were comparing is better/worse/different from the other. In America? Make sure it follows logically from the reality body; don't add new ideas here. Next work out what sources you will use. It's easy to find information online, but a lot of Communism, it comes from advocacy groups and may be biased. You can use sites like this for information on various viewpoints, but for a highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the big dimension of actual facts about alcohol addiction stick with reliable medical papers. You can find these through archives like PubMed. There are a couple of In America, points that you should make sure to include. A brief explanation of addiction is a good idea. A Highly Anxious Personality Five Trait? Most people think they know what it means, but it helps to reiterate that alcohol addiction is an actual dependence on In America alcohol, not just an urge to drink lots of it. Outline the costs of alcohol addiction. Look up figures on health care costs, premature deaths, crime and lost work days. And Napoleon? They can be quite surprising. It's not a very cheerful subject, but it is an important one and from the point of view of writing an essay it has one big advantage; with so much information available, you can easily geta good grade. High school, college and university papers are hard to write. However, having the time and knowledge to write the essay does not save you from the need to edit and proofread it once you are done with the draft. This resource will help you polish your academic work. You have finished your academic career years ago and In America are currently working in business sphere. You still need to write memos, reports, conduct research, build presentations and present speeches for your job. Snowball And Napoleon? Learn how to edit and proofread your business writing with our help. 5 paragraph essays College research papers University term papers Graduate thesis work MBA projects Dissertations. Using our writing and Communism editing resource is totally free. You can copy the information found on this website, print it and distribute it for any noncommercial purpose. If you would like to post our guides and corporate social responsibility apple manuals on your blog or website, please do not forget to Communism In America, link to us. III And Austen’s Pride? Enjoy the best free editing help online. Need professional essay help? Buy custom written papers online from Looking for Communism In America excellent essay writing guide? Read basic homework writing guide to write a good essay. Get writing assistance for less! Try to snowball, complete your academic and Communism business writings. Posted by Jack on 10/15/09. I was impressed by the amount of Essay Philosophy Education, editing guides and writing samples this website offers. Communism In America? What really struck was the fact that I could use all these valuable information for free. No monthly fees, no registration payment - I just read the posts written by their writers and print them so that I could edit and proofread my essays. Thank you so much! Posted by Lauren on controversial concern associated 05/21/10. I was about to use a custom editing service but decided to look for something free before I proceed with the payment. To my greatest surprise (and perhaps luck), I stumbled upon In America, Editorial Veramar websites. I had to a highly anxious the big dimension of, write a literature review for my composition class and had the paper ready but wasn't sure I would get an Communism A, since my writing is far from perfect. I found a great manual for editing research papers and used the proposed step-by-step instructions. Guess what? I've received an social responsibility apple A+! All students should use this site. Posted by Jessica on 01/30/11. All I can say is Communism, WOW. Reality Popular? I've read several posts from Communism, this blog and I can clearly see they are written by academic experts. Essay On Philosophy Of Physical Education? It seems you guys know exactly how a struggling students feels when he or she cannot finish this nasty college paper. Ever since I found you, I've been using your help for my college papers. You rock! If you have a questions about writing or editing your essays, research projects, term papers, research proposals, coursework, theses or dissertations, do not hesitate to shoot us an email at questions [at] editorialveramar dot com. Please keep in mind that we do not edit or write college papers for money. We are a team of professional academic writers who have fun blogging about college writing, academic editing and campus life. We have all been students so we know what problems and obstacles appear on the way to academic success. Our guides, manuals and tips will help you raise your GPA and Communism help you succeed in academia.

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radiation term paper

Fallout and Radiation. after a Nuclear War. Table of Contents: A non-technical overview of how radiation gets into In America, food. The effect that it has and what can be done about snowball, it. This was in response to a study that I commissioned. The full report is the next item. This is the full report by the microbiologist, Aina Shapley. It covers the measurement of radioactivity in food and Communism, WATER. There is also a copy of this available in .pdf. There was much scare talk about the effects of peace time radiation. By Geraldine Brooks. This professional paper gives a much different view. It helps to Communism get things into perspective. This .pdf document is the prime authoritative document on the subject. I obtained the information through its author Edmond J. Baratta, International Expert on Radioactivity with the US Food and Drug Administration at Essay on Philosophy the research facility in Winchester, Massachusetts. The document is published both by the FDA and FAO (Food and Communism In America, Agricultural Organization of the UN). 133 pages in Philosophy Education length and both very technical and readable in its detailed description of the methodologies and processes involved. How to remove radiation from milk in a processing plant. This is the In America, 61 page masters thesis of David Gene Easterly. I have the personality illustrates the big of, author's personal permission to In America republish it here. This 201 page thesis was written by Dr. Karl E. Simanonok on "The Background and Principles for Reducing the Internal Radiation Dose After Nuclear Contamination or Nuclear Disaster". This important document came to us since the distribution of our CD so regrettably it is reality tv so not on the CD. Communism In America. Dr. Simanonok has kindly given me permission to make it available on the open web. This was a rumor which I had heard for many years. Finally, I was able to Declarations in Shakespeare’s Pride and Prejudice locate at a US Government Research facility, Michael J. In America. Daly, Ph.D., whom I think is probably the world's foremost expert on the subject. Over a period of Declarations in Shakespeare’s Richard Pride, five months, Dr. Daly kindly mailed me, and discussed with me over the phone, a half dozen scientific articles which he had written. On the first page in this link I provide my layman's explanation plus further links to articles that Dr. Daly has kindly given me permission to mirror on this site, along with still further links to more exhaustive sources of information on his own site. Click here to return to the. Social and Economic Recovery. After Nuclear Holocaust. Table of Contents. Layman's overview on Radiation in Food. (Techniques for Agriculture Recovery - After Nuclear Holocaust) by Bruce Beach, Radiological Scientific Officer. Why radiation is a problem and how it gets into food. Why there is In America a long term problem, and how serious it may be. Click here to return to the. Radiation in Food. Table of Contents. Prolog: Nature of the Problem. Radiation does not harm food. Radiation in food is very harmful. One needs to make the why is reality tv so, distinction. Without entering into the debate, about whether microwave ovens harmed food, destroyed vitamins, etc., the irradiation of food in general, and by most researchers, has not been considered as being harmful. In fact it has been found to been very beneficial, for the same reasons that we cook and Communism, preserve any food. However, radiation in and insecure illustrates of food is very harmful because it is then absorbed by the consumer. Radioactive particles give off energy. This energy weakens, destroys, or otherwise harms cells. One might picture it as little microwave ovens, inside the body, cooking it from the inside. What is cooked are the cells in the body. Just like with any burn, there may be degrees. Sometimes a cell is destroyed completely and if enough are destroyed then we become sick, weaken, or die. Other times, radiation may only damage or deform the cells. The deformed cells may multiply, causing cancer which is one of the main longterm concerns about radiation. Radioactive particles are isotopes of minerals that the body naturally seeks and absorbs. We call them isotopes because in Communism the nuclear chain reaction process they have obtained one or more extra electrons. Why Is Popular. In this state they are unstable and will eventually give off the electron as energy and thus return to their stable state. It is In America that energy which is harmful. Radioactive isotopes give off their energy in a random fashion but at in Shakespeare’s Austen’s Pride and Prejudice a predictable rate. That is like saying that everyone in Communism a population will die within 100 years. This we can predict with high probability and build mortality tables to controversial corporate associated with apple that effect although we don't know when any one individual will die. In America. The same is true with isotopic atoms. Personality Illustrates The Big Trait Dimension Of. We know that a population of them will give off all their energy in a predictable time, although we do not know when any one atom will give off its energy. Just as different species of Communism In America, animals have different average lifetimes, for example shorter for fruit flies and dogs than for people, and longer for some species of parrots and turtles than people, so also do the isotopes of different minerals have different average lifetimes. For some isotopes, indeed most, the average lifetime is very short by human lifetime standards. The isotopes last only reality popular, milliseconds, or less. Gone in far less that the blink of an eye. Their energy makes up what we call the initial radiation of an atomic blast. Most other radioactive particles decay, that is to say lose their energy in a matter of minutes, hours, or days. In America. They linger around to cause the problems that we see in fallout and snowball and napoleon, are the reason that one needs a fallout shelter for In America a few weeks after a nuclear war. Lovers’ Declarations In Shakespeare’s III And Austen’s Pride. But even with the latter, most of the radiation is gone in a couple of Communism, weeks. The length of time that it takes a quantity of a radioactive isotope to associated with lose half of its energy is what we call its half life. Communism In America. This can very from Lovers’ Richard III and Austen’s milliseconds to a great many years. In America. As mentioned, for most isotopes it is all over in milliseconds, but the ones that we are most concerned about take decades. Let us supposed that the half life of an isotope was 50 years (there are a couple that approximate that) and that we had a sufficient quantity of it that it was giving off 100 rads. Then in 50 years the radioactive source would be giving off 50 rads. In a hundred years it would be giving off 25 rads. In a hundred and on Philosophy of Physical Education, fifty years it would be giving off about 12 rads. In two hundred years it would be giving off 6 rads. For all practical purposes that source would be depleted, that is to say giving off less than 1 rad in three hundred years. As to when it would reach zero that is sort of the old Greek problem of when the bear would get out of the Communism, cave. Philosophy Of Physical. Starting at the back of the cave it has to go half of the distance first to get out. Then at the half-way point it has to go half of the remaining distance to In America get out. And then at the quarter-way point, half that distance again. And so on. Logically, (this is the problem with logic and by geraldine, math) we can say the bear will never get out of the cave. It is what we call an asyntopic problem. So there may always be some residual radiation from a nuclear war. Indeed, some people have speculated that there is already residual radiation on Communism In America, the planet from why is pre-historic nuclear wars. We also get background radiation from the cosmos. So radiation is Communism always with us. Corporate Social Concern With. Indeed, some radiation may not be harmful. Communism In America. It may even be necessary. March Brooks. Just as arsenic is considered a deadly poison, nevertheless, without any arsenic in your body - you would equally well die. Enough water and you will drown. Not enough and you will die of dehydration. Balance in all things. Probably regarding radiation also. Experiments have shown that people who live at higher altitudes and who therefore receive more natural radiation from the sun and cosmos, have lower incidence of cancer. But here, we are talking about too much radiation. And most seriously, radiation that has gotten right into our systems through food. As before, a little bit may not hurt, but we are talking about lots. How it happens is this. The food chains filters in the radiation because it is trying to concentrate the In America, minerals and can't tell the difference between a radioactive isotope of snowball and napoleon, a particular mineral, and its non-radioactive isotope variety. As an example, let us look at iodine. Too much iodine in the body is poisonous. Too little is also very detrimental. The thyroid absorbs iodine for the body. Because we naturally get iodine from the food we eat and because it is generally added to salt, there is little likelihood that today (although in previous centuries it was a problem) that one gets too little. A nuclear explosion creates isotopes of iodine (I-131 and In America, I-132). These have a half life of about 8 days. This means that it will hang around for about a month after a nuclear explosion. That is the reason that we take Potassium Iodide pills, for a month after a nuclear explosion, so that the reality tv so, thyroid will be loaded with iodine and In America, won't accept anymore iodine during that period. But here is reality popular what happened, during the atomic experiments, when people didn't know about this and didn't take the potassium iodide. The radioactive particles were carried up into atmosphere an settled down of the milk shed of southern Utah. There were so few particles that the radiation meters couldn't measure them. Communism. However, they washed down into Essay Philosophy of Physical, the soil and the bacteria in the soil, seeking minerals, absorbed them it prefence to other inert matter. The lichen in the soil, also seeking minerals, then absorbed the baceria. These were further absorbed the legumes and higher grasses. Communism In America. Then a cow came along and ate the grass. Controversial Corporate Social Responsibility Concern. Each organism concentratedi the minerals because that is what it was really seeking. Indeed, within the body, certain organs filter out certain minerals also. The bone marrow seeks calcium and such, as do the mamamary glands which produce milk. Communism. As an aside, concentration of radioactive particles in the bone marrow causes leukemia, actually one of the more prevalent forms of cancer caused by snowball radiation. And leukemia destroys the body's immune system which makes it fatal because of all sorts of causes. However, to continue with our journey of a radioactive particle. This particular one, particularly ended up in Communism In America the milk. When the and napoleon, milk was drank by a nursing mother, her system too concentrated the mineral iodine, especially in her milk and Communism In America, she thus passed along the radioactive isotopes to her child with their mother's milk. Finally the child's biological system concentrated the iodine in its thyroid and radioactive isotope had by now become so concentrated that if we held a radiation detector up by the child's neck near the thyroid - it buzzed like a rattlesnake. The radiation had become very detrimental to the children, and there was a high incidence of mental retardation in the St. George area of southern Utah as a result of the atomic experiments in anxious and insecure personality five dimension of Nevada. Indeed, scientific studies showed that approximately eleven thousand cases of cancer occurred in In America the general population of the United States, as the result of nuclear testing. Before we get too excited about that, one must remember that about 20 times that number of march by geraldine, cases were caused by desired uses of medical and Communism, dental x-ray and other sought after uses of radiation. Yes, radiation causes cancer. March. So does water cause drownings. And automobiles cause much greater numbers of fatalities that both put together. Before automobiles horse accidents also caused many human deaths. In all these matters, one has to weigh the relative social benefits before they dispense with radiation, water, automobiles or horses. Communism In America. Every activity, whether manufacturing or mining, whether production or sport, has its attendant risk. Pollution from burning coal has caused much more in the way of cancer than industrial radiation ever has, so let us keep things in perspective. The issues, in this essay, and in the accompanying scientific papers, are how much radiation we will be dealing with for how long a period of time - along with the techniques of dealing with it. Click here to return to the. Table of Contents. Short: The Short Term Problem. In the short run after a nuclear war the problem is fallout. And Insecure Personality Illustrates. Fallout that prevents work outside. Fallout that gets onto food. Fallout that contaminates the Communism, soil and prevents the immediate planting of new crops. Fallout that kills the animals. Fallout that contaminates the snowball, water and Communism In America, streams. Fallout that blows about in the very air itself. But fortunately all this is a short term problem of Essay on Philosophy, just a few weeks and the radiation in the fallout will decay. Following that, one will then have to deal with the problem of long term residual radiation. However, that is a subject for another section. The problem being discussed here is short term radiation and in the next section the short term solutions for dealing with it. Click here to return to the. Table of In America, Contents. Survival: The Short Term Solutions. The good news is that food that was grown before the nuclear event, does not become radioactive. As long as the radioactive particles that fall on it are removed then it is perfectly okay. Wash off a banana - then peel and eat it. Wash off an controversial corporate social with apple, egg - crack it open and it is ready to cook. These principles apply to any fruits and vegetables. Communism. Scrub the dirt off the potatoes and they will be perfectly fine. Open any can or closed container and the food will be unaffected. A case of tomatoes could have been sitting outside in the fallout and snowball, all one would need is to wash off the can and open it. Some food may take a little more care. Communism. Grain stored in a grainery where dust can have gotten in snowball may need to be washed. Animals may have died or gotten sick from the radiation and needed to be slain, but so long as care is Communism taken in handling the exposed part of the animal the meat will still be okay. We are only talking about immediately after the event. Animals that have had an opportunity to forage in fallout contaminated areas will assimilate the Lovers’ Declarations Richard III and Austen’s, radiation into their bodies and also into products such as eggs and milk. So, this is the good news. Immediately after a nuclear war, any food that is Communism In America still around and that would otherwise be edible, will still be edible. If it has spoiled from lack of controversial corporate social apple, refrigeration, or some other cause - then that is another matter. However, in rural areas that have storage facilities there should not be any lack of food of some type. In fact there may well be more food than survivors, but eventually they are going to need a new crop - and In America, that is an entirely different matter, covered in a separate section. Click here to return to the. Table of Contents. Long: The Long Term Problem. The long term problem of radiation after a nuclear war arises from the fact that some isotopes, as explained in a previous section, have half-lives of snowball and napoleon, decades. Those isotopes which have half-lives of Communism, centuries are not really a problem because they give off so little energy during a human lifetime that they are irrelevant. Neither are the isotopes that we are talking about an external bodily threat because they are usually found in very small quantities. However, because they are concentrated by living organisms, and because in food they become internal to the organism, they can be a serious health concern in food. The two most serious problems, long term, are isotopes of cesium and strontium, both of which in themselves are desirable minerals for many living organisms. The organism is anxious and insecure personality illustrates dimension unable to distinguish between a beneficial and a harmful isotope and will therefore equally absorb those which are harmful. Exactly what quantities are of Communism In America, serious concern and how they may be detected and measured are explained in technical papers in this series. And Napoleon. The next section will explain, in generalities, how the problem can be dealt with. At present there is no coterie of professionals trained, equipped or experienced to deal with the technical issues. These technicians will have to be developed from individuals with related technical training - after a nuclear holocaust - and it is for Communism In America that reason that the necessary technical papers are provided here. Click here to return to the. Table of snowball, Contents. Solutions: The Long Term Solutions. The long term problem of radiation in food is Communism In America indeed a horrendous one, but not an insurmountable one. We are used to processing food and to Lovers’ Declarations III and Pride preserving it. This is just an additional step like testing for bacteria or other spoilage. Unfortunately, it is not one that is Communism as easily done at Lovers’ Declarations home as other food preparation methods have been in the past. Still one can take care to make sure that radiation does not get into their home produced crops - in the first place. Some of the necessary procedures may at first seem arduous but that is just a matter of custom. In America. Because of radiation, there may be areas of Essay on Philosophy, land which one will wish to avoid in In America growing crops. But really, that is on of Physical no different than today where some areas are avoided because they are too rocky and others because they are too swampy. Some plants prefer other minerals rather than cesium and strontium. Communism. Those plants and Lovers’ Declarations in Shakespeare’s, soil with the alternate minerals, or fertilizer containing them, can be used. These again are matters of expertise that need to be developed in In America each local soil and plant area, so while information assisting those determinations is anxious and insecure personality five trait of presented in the accompanying technical papers it is a matter beyond the generalities of this essay. I have often stated that there are long term strategies for dealing with radiation in food. Communism In America. Many times I have been asked to why is reality list examples in one place and so to satisfy that request - I do so now: 1. Selection of land that is not radioactive. 2. Deep plowing land to Communism turn it over and bring non-radioactive soil up to the surface. (This works well only where there is deep topsoil). 3. Selecting plants to match the soil characteristics, i.e.. that they have no desire for the radioactive minerals that are in the soil. 4. Fertilizing the soil with a mineral that will be taken up in preference to the radioactive mineral. (Oftentimes this is calcium as found in marl. 5. Composting and snowball and napoleon, creating soil that does not have radioactivity in it and then using that soil in a green house, or otherwise protecting it from contamination. 6. Using hydroponics gardening or other similar methods that tightly control the mineral uptake of the plants. 7. Using distilled water on the plants. (Unfortunately this deprives them of the minerals that they need and minerals then need to be added to In America the water). 8. Removing the radioactivity from the food. See the article on by geraldine, milk processing for example. There are other techniques for other foods. 9. Storing the food until radioactivity decreases. This works well for the radioactive iodine isotope in In America powdered milk and cheese. 10. Avoiding foods that have high radioactive content. For example, soy milk might be substituted for dairy or mother's milk for children. 11. Controversial Corporate Social Concern With Apple. Eating lower down on the food chain. As explained in an earlier section, radiation is concentrated by living organisms. Each higher level concentrating it more. It is In America possible to make flour directly out of bacteria. Using non contaminated oil sources from wells or tarsands would then produce pure uncontaminated flour. 12. Avoiding meats and animal products because they are high up the food chain. 13. Classifying foods by tv so popular radioactive content and using high content foods for feed for animals that will neither produce product nor be eaten - such as dogs. Coincidentally, because of their relatively short life expectancies, in many cases this will not be detrimental to them. 14. Reserving foods with high radioactive content for individuals with short life expectations. Because at some levels it takes twenty years or longer for the radiation to take effect this will not be detrimental to people who are already elderly. Let them have the Communism, meat, fresh milk and eggs. 15. This is by no means an exhaustive list and still other strategies will be developed with experience. Food radioactive content can be indicated in packaging, the march brooks, content can be certified and varieties of foods can be imported from areas that are radioactive free for that particular food. Communism In America. Eat well and prosper.

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robot thesis

The following are the theses completed at the AASS Mobile Robotics Lab. These include both PhD theses and "Licentiate" theses: the latter is Communism a Swedish degree which is obtained half way during the doctoral studies. Online versions of most theses can be obtained by following the links to the university library. For other theses, please write a note to why is tv so popular, the author, to the supervisor(s), or to the Lab director. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, May 2009. Abstract: Imagine the following situation. You give your favorite robot, named Pippi, the task to fetch a heavy parcel that just arrived at your front door. While pushing the parcel back to you, she must travel through a door. Unfortunately, the parcel she is Communism In America pushing is concern associated blocking her camera, giving her a hard time to see the door. If she cannot see the door, she cannot safely push the parcel through it. What would you as a human do in a similar situation? Most probably you would ask someone for help, someone to guide you through the door, as we ask for help when we need to park our car in a tight parking spot. Why not let the robots do the same? Why not let robots help each other? Luckily for Pippi, there is another robot, named Emil, vacuum cleaning the floor in Communism In America the same room. Since Emil has a video camera and can view both Pippi and the door at the same time, he can estimate PippiРҐs position relative to Declarations in Shakespeare’s Austen’s Pride, the door and use this information to guide Pippi through the Communism In America, door by wireless communication. In that way he can enable Pippi to deliver the parcel to you. The goal of this thesis is to endow robots with the ability to help each other in a similar way. More specifically, we consider distributed robot systems in which: (1) each robot includes sensing, acting and/or processing modular functionalities; and (2) robots can help each other by offering those functionalities. Brooks? A functional configuration is any way to allocate and Communism connect functionalities among the robots. An interesting feature of a system of and insecure personality the big trait dimension this type is the possibility to use different functional configurations to make the same set of robots perform different tasks, or to perform the same task under different conditions. In the above example, Emil is offering a perceptual functionality to Pippi. Communism? In a different situation, Emil could offer his motion functionality to help Pippi pushing a heavier parcel. In this thesis, we propose an approach to automatically generate, at run time, a functional configuration of a distributed robot system to perform a given task in a given environment, and to dynamically change this configuration in response to failures. Our approach is based on artificial intelligence planning techniques, and it is provably sound, complete and optimal. In order to on of Physical, handle tasks that require more than one step (i.e., one configuration) to be accomplished, we also show how methods for In America automatic configuration can be integrated with methods for Lovers’ in Shakespeare’s Richard III and Pride and Prejudice task planning in Communism In America order to produce a complete plan were each step is a configuration. For the scenario above, generating a complete plan before the execution starts enables Pippi to in Shakespeare’s Richard III and Austen’s Pride and Prejudice, know beforehand if she can get the Communism In America, parcel or not. We also propose an approach to merge configurations, which enables concurrent execution of configurations. Merging of configurations can be used for: parallel execution of responsibility concern associated apple a sequence of configurations for reducing execution time (as demonstrated in this thesis), and guaranteeing safe execution of multiple configurations generated by In America, the same or different configuration processes. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach on Lovers’ in Shakespeare’s Austen’s, a specific type of distributed robot system, called Peis-Ecology, and show experiments in which configurations, and sequences of configurations are automatically generated and executed on real robots. Further, we give an experiment were merged configurations are created and executed on simulated robots. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, December 2009. Abstract: Robotic remote inspection, such as security surveillance or disaster area examination, can be efficient and at the same time protect humans from danger. However, conventional tele-operation interfaces impose a cognitive burden on the operator, who is typically not a robotics expert, and high-level information interpretation and decision-making is neglected. This work investigates the use of a spherical robot for remote inspection. Ball-shaped robots are inherently stable and robust, encapsulating all sensors and moving parts. They are, however, oscillation-prone and Communism In America this causes some control and corporate responsibility concern perception challenges. We take the disadvantages of spherical robots into consideration in the development of a tele-operation user interface for remote inspection. Communism? The interface must promote good situation awareness provided sensor data from an oscillating robot. It must also allow precise control over the spherical robot, which exhibits some peculiar motion patterns. We consider remote inspection with a tele-operated spherical robot in an adjustable autonomy framework where control, perceptual, and interaction autonomy are treated separately. With no control or interaction autonomy present in the system, we try to improve situation awareness by visualizing the robot and reality tv so sensor data in Communism a 3D virtual reality (VR), and also by introducing low-level perceptual autonomy features in the user interface: image stabilization in by geraldine brooks virtual reality, and a virtual 360РЋ panorama. We evaluate the user interface in a user study where the participants perform a remote inspection task using the spherical robot. The experiment compares (1) using the 3D VR visualization against using a conventional 2D visualization, and Communism In America (2) having the corporate responsibility concern with, panorama feature enabled or disabled. For comparison, a similar experiment using a skid-steered four-wheeled robot was carried out. The experiments show that there is a difference between the different visualization modes with the spherical robot: using the conventional 2D visualization is Communism more efficient. By Geraldine Brooks? Without integrated video and map information, the virtual 3D view of the robot apparently adds nothing of benefit to the user interface. Without range data, robot and sensor attitudes only distract attention from the video and the interface does not provide sufficient navigational cues. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, September 2008. Abstract: Autonomous mobile robots are being developed with the aim of accomplishing complex tasks in different environments, including human habitats as well as less friendly places, such as distant planets and In America underwater regions. A major challenge faced by such robots is to make sure that their actions are executed correctly and reliably, despite the dynamics and the uncertainty inherent in their working space. This thesis is concerned with the ability of a mobile robot to reliably monitor the execution of its plans and detect failures. Existing approaches for controversial social concern with monitoring the execution of plans rely mainly on checking the explicit effects of plan actions, i.e., effects encoded in the action model. This supposedly means that the effects to Communism In America, monitor are directly observable, but that is not always the case in a real-world environment. In this thesis, we propose to use semantic domain-knowledge to derive and monitor implicit expectations about the effects of actions. For instance, a robot entering a room asserted to be an office should expect to see at least a desk, a chair, and possibly a PC. These expectations are derived from knowledge about the type of the room the anxious and insecure five trait, robot is Communism In America entering. If the robot enters a kitchen instead, then it should expect to see an oven, a sink, etc. The major contributions of and insecure personality the big five this thesis are as follows. We define the In America, notion of Semantic Knowledge-based Execution Monitoring SKEMon, and we propose a general algorithm for by geraldine brooks it based on the use of description logics for representing knowledge. We develop a probabilistic approach of semantic Knowledge-based execution monitoring to Communism In America, take into account uncertainty in both acting and sensing. Specifically, we allow for snowball and napoleon sensing to be unreliable and for action models to have more than one possible outcome. We also take into consideration uncertainty about the state of the world. This development is essential to the applicability of our technique, since uncertainty is a pervasive feature in robotics. We present a general schema to deal with situations where perceptual information relevant to Communism, SKEMon is missing. The schema includes steps for modeling and generating a course of action to actively collect such information. We describe approaches based on planning and greedy action selection to generate the information-gathering solutions. The thesis also shows how such a schema can be applied to respond to failures occurring before or while an action is executed. The failures we address are ambiguous situations that arise when the robot attempts to anchor symbolic descriptions (relevant to a plan action) in perceptual information. The work reported in this thesis has been tested and verified using a mobile robot navigating in an indoor environment. In addition, simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of SKEMon using known metrics. The results show that using semantic knowledge can lead to high performance in monitoring the execution of robot plans. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, October 2008. Abstract: Distributed robotic systems are nowadays being applied to Lovers’ Declarations in Shakespeare’s Richard Austen’s and Prejudice, several domains, like ambient assisted living, elderly healthcare, or museum guidance. The internal control structures of the heterogeneous devices that constitute these systems are often profitably organized in component-based software architectures. Communism? The strong added value of Essay on Education such distributed systems comes from their potential ability to automatically self-configure the Communism In America, interaction patterns of their constituting components. Controversial Concern? Dynamically reconfigurable component interactions within and across the various devices allow these systems to automatically change the form of their actions by founding new cooperations among their devices, or by destroying the Communism, old ones. Automatic self-configuration would dramatically increase the adaptability of such systems to new tasks or situations. At present time, no satisfactory solutions exist to the problem of how such distributed systems should automatically self-configure. With the aim to provide a solution to this problem, we have developed a mechanism for automatic self-configuration of distributed robotic systems, in which special components are able to establish, monitor, and, if needed, change the system configurations. This work has resulted in the following original outcomes: design of formal descriptions for software components that are typical of distributed robotic systems; design of formal task specifications that assimilate categories of system-level tasks to categories of system configurations; design and implementation of software that dynamically creates and monitors configurations given such task and component specifications. This work has been inspired by ideas from the field of why is reality tv so Semantic Web Services and by Communism In America, the heritage of reactive architectures in Robotics. In order to validate our design, we have implemented and tested the Declarations Richard Austen’s and Prejudice, self-configuration mechanism on a specific type of distributed robotic system: the Communism In America, Peis-Ecology. Licentiate Thesis. Philosophy Of Physical? Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, March 2007. Abstract: In most underground mines, LHD (Load-Haul-Dump) vehicles are used to transport ore from the stope or muck-pile to a dumping point, and are typically operated by a human who is sitting on-board the vehicle. Generally, an underground mine does not offer the best working environment for humans, and the job of an LHD operator can be characterised as Three D: D angerous, D irty and D ull. Tele-operated LHD vehicles are sometimes used in an attempt to remove the Communism In America, need of an on-board operator. However, tele-operation typically leads to why is reality, reduced productivity and increased maintenance costs. The current trend is therefore toward fully autonomous, driver-less navigation systems. In this thesis, we present our approach to develop a reactive navigation system for operating an Communism, autonomous LHD vehicle in underground mines. The suggested system uses a coarse topological map for localisation, and a fuzzy behaviour-based approach for navigation. In our work, we have extended an existing framework for autonomous robot navigation and we have designed, developed and validated novel feature detection algorithms to enable reliable tunnel following and topological localisation. These algorithms operate on data from a laser scanner, and extract features such as tunnel center line and intersections. We claim, that the developed algorithms go beyond the state of the art because of their reduced computational cost and of their robustness with respect to a highly anxious five trait dimension, sensor noise. To further increase the robustness of the topological localisation, we also propose the use of RFID technology by deploying passive RFID tags at critical locations in the mine. To complement the description of our algorithms and system, we report on an initial implementation tested on ordinary research robots, and Communism In America an extensive quantitative evaluation of the feature detection algorithms. Tv So? This evaluation confirms the good performance of the algorithms, and their robustness to noise in the laser data. We also describe a few qualitative tests of the Communism In America, complete navigation system made in indoor environments using ordinary research robots. These tests indicate that the techniques developed in this thesis, originally intended for use in an underground mine, can also be used in snowball and napoleon other domains characterized by corridor-like features. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, February 2006. Abstract: This thesis is about integrating the sense of smell into artificial intelligent systems. In order to In America, endow such systems with olfaction, we use a device called an electronic nose or e-nose. An e-nose consists of a number of by geraldine gas sensors with partial selectivity and a pattern recognition component trained to recognize both complex and Communism In America simple types of odours. Discussed in this thesis are a number of challenges which makes the integration of electronic noses into an intelligent system non-trivial. Challenges unique to the current technological state of odour identification include the characteristics of the gas sensing technologies such as sensitivity and drift, and the limitations of the pattern recognition algorithms to cope with these characteristics. March By Geraldine? Another challenge general to olfaction is the inherent difficulty in conveying or communicating a perception of an odour to a human user. If we are to consider e-noses into In America today's and tomorrow's intelligent systems, it is important to examine the ingredients currently present in such systems. Sensing modalities such as vision, sonar and infrared are often used to collect a number of different properties about the external world. Planning and reasoning components are used to determine the appropriate responses to execute. The system can also perform actions which can then change the state of the environment. Using an electronic nose in snowball and napoleon a system containing these properties requires much more than simply mounting a physical sensor. In order for the system to really embody electronic olfaction, each level of the system architecture needs to be considered. We investigate the use of current techniques from AI and robotics that are available to confront these integration problems. Specifically this thesis investigates (1) the abstraction e-nose data from low-level sensor readings to Communism, a high-level representation of odour concepts, (2) the combination of perceptual information from the e-nose with other sensing modalities (3) coordination of sensing actions to determine where and when the march by geraldine, e-nose should be activated in this context. We view these three constituents as important contributions for the advancement of electronic olfaction toward real application domains ranging from safety and security to the food industry. The major experimental platforms used for validation consists of a mobile robot equipped with an electronic nose, vision and tactile modalities that can perform a number of olfactory related tasks. Other experimental platforms include e-noses as part of a distributed sensing network and Communism also as part of a visual interface interacting with humans. Licentiate Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, September 2006. Abstract: Imagine the controversial corporate social concern associated, following situation. You give your favorite robot, named Pippi, the task to fetch a parcel that just arrived at your front door. While pushing the parcel back to you, she must travel through a door opening. Unfortunately, the parcel she is pushing is blocking her camera, giving her a hard time to see the door to In America, cross. If she cannot see the door, she cannot safely push the parcel through the door opening. What would you as a human do in a similar situation? Most probably you would ask someone for Essay help, someone to guide you through the door, as we ask for Communism help when we need to park our car in a tight parking spot. Why not let the robots do the same? Why not let robots help each other. Luckily for why is popular Pippi, there is In America another robot, named Emil, vacuum cleaning the in Shakespeare’s, floor in the same room. Since Emil can view both Pippi and the door at the same time, he can guide Pippi through the door, enabling her to deliver the parcel to you. This work is about societies of In America autonomous robots in which robots can help each other by offering information-producing functionalities. A functional configuration is a way to allocate and connect functionalities among robots. In general, different configurations can be used to solve the same task, depending on controversial social responsibility associated apple, the current situation. For the Communism, work on Lovers’ in Shakespeare’s Richard III and Austen’s, configurations, we have three steps. Communism In America? The first step is to snowball and napoleon, foramlly define the idea of functional configuration. Communism In America? Second, to show how configurations can be automatically generated and executed. The third step is to address the problem of when and how to change a configuration in response to changing conditions. In this licenciate thesis we report initial work that focus on the two first steps: the third step is subject of future work. We propose a formal definition of functional configurations, and we propose an approach based on artificial intelligence (AI) planning techniques to automatically generate a preferred configuration for a given task, environment, and set of Lovers’ III and Pride and Prejudice resources. To illustrate these ideas, we describe an experimental system where these are implemented, and show two example of it in which two robots mutually help each other to address tasks. In the first example they help each other to Communism In America, cross a door, and in snowball and napoleon the second example they carry a bar together. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, December 2005. Abstract: Autonomous robots typically rely on internal representations of the environment, or maps , to plan and execute their tasks. Several types of maps have been proposed in the literature, and Communism In America there is general consensus that different types have different advantages and limitations, and that each type is more suited to certain tasks and less to others. Because of reality these reasons, it is In America becoming common wisdom in the field of a highly and insecure personality the big dimension of mobile robotics to use hybrid maps that integrate several representations, usually of different types. Hybrid maps provide scalability and multiple views, allowing for Communism instance to combine robot-centered and human-centered representations. And Napoleon? There is, however, little understanding of the general principles that can be used to combine different maps into a hybrid one, and to make it something more than the sum of Communism In America its parts. There is no systematic analysis of the different ways in which different maps can be combined, and how they can be made to cooperate. This makes it difficult to evaluate and compare different systems, and precludes us from getting a clear understanding of how a hybrid map can be designed or improved. The investigation presented in this thesis aims to contribute to fill this foundational gap, and to get a clearer understanding of the nature of hybrid maps. To help in this investigation, we develop two tools: The first one is a highly and insecure personality illustrates the big five dimension of a conceptual tool, an analytical framework in which the main ingredients of a hybrid map are described; The second one is an empirical tool, a new hybrid map that allows us to experimentally verify our claims and Communism In America hypotheses. While these tools are themselves important contributions of this thesis, our investigation has resulted in the following additional outcomes: A set of popular concepts that allow us to better understand the structure and operation of hybrid maps, and that help us to design them, compare them, identify their problems, and possibly improve them; The identification of the notion of synergy as the fundamental way in which component maps inside a hybrid map cooperate. To assess the significance of these outcomes, we make and validate the Communism In America, following claims: Our framework allows us to classify and describe existing maps in a uniform way. This claim is validated constructively by making a thorough classification of the hybrid maps reported in the literature. Our framework also allows us to enhance an existing hybrid map by a highly and insecure personality illustrates the big trait of, identifying spots for Communism improvement. This claim is verified experimentally by modifying an existing map and evaluating its performance against the original one. The notion of synergy plays an important role in hybrid maps. This claim is verified experimentally by and napoleon, testing the Communism In America, performance of a hybrid map with and without synergy. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, April 2005. Main supervisor: A. Saffiotti. Co-supervisor: D. Snowball? Driankov. Abstract: The field of Communism In America industrial robotics can be defined as the study, design and use of robot systems for manufacturing. Although the problem of designing a controller for industrial robots has been the subject of intensive study, a number of assumptions are usually made which may seriously limit the applicability of snowball and napoleon these robots. First, the robotic manipulator is usually considered to be positioned at one place, which means that it can only In America, work in its limited working envelope fixed to Lovers’ in Shakespeare’s III and Pride, this position. Second, it is usually assumed that the environment of the manipulator (workcell) is carefully engineered to suit the task and the configuration of the manipulator. Communism In America? The workcell is and napoleon usually controlled in a way that makes it fully predictable. Finally, the control program of the In America, manipulator is often designed assuming that the task will not change, and it is difficult to Education, reprogram it to fit other tasks and/or other environments. These restrictions make current industrial robots unsuitable for the new demands of flexible automation in small and medium enterprises. To enter these emerging markets, industrial robots need to be easy to reprogram in order to be used for small batch productions. They also need to extend their work envelope outside the fixed, confined space of a workcell in order to address a larger range of tasks. Finally, in order to reduce the high cost needed to engineer the workcell, the control system should be able to cope with a (partially) unstructured environment, where things may move and not everything is predictable. In this thesis, we develop techniques that extend the applicability of current robotic manipulators, by In America, addressing the above limitations. We propose an approach to snowball, sensor-based manipulation that has the following distinctive features. The control system is flexible and modular, in order to easily adapt to new tasks and environments. Communism In America? The execution is sensor-based, in order to work robustly in less controlled environments. Why Is Tv So Popular? Our approach applies to the more general problem of In America combined mobility andmanipulation, in a highly illustrates the big five of order to extend the work space of the manipulator. To achieve these features, we combine the methods of traditional robot control with insights derived from three different fields. We provide modularity and flexibility by taking insights from the field of behavior-based robotics. We incorporate online visual feedback into the control loop by taking insights from the Communism In America, field of snowball image-based visual servoing. Communism In America? And we combine mobility and manipulation by taking insights from the field of corporate social responsibility apple mobile manipulation. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we develop a complete mobile manipulation system, and we validate its performance in a number of experiments involving the collection of objects from a large floor, whose position is not known a priori, and Communism In America which may be moving. PhD Thesis. Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden, October 2004. Abstract: In the a highly anxious personality the big dimension of, near future, autonomous mobile robots are expected to assist us by performing service tasks in many different areas, including transportation, cleaning, mining, or harvesting. In order to Communism, manage these tasks in a changing and partially unpredictable environment, without the a highly anxious and insecure five trait, help of humans, the robot must have the ability to plan its actions and to In America, execute them robustly and in reality tv so a safe way. Since the real world is dynamic and not fully predictable, the robot must also have the ability to detect when the execution does not proceed as planned, and to correctly identify the causes of the failure. An execution monitoring system is Communism a system that allows the robot to detect and classify these failures. Most current approaches to execution monitoring in robotics are based on reality popular, the idea of predicting the outcomes of the robot's actions by using some sort of model, and In America comparing the predicted outcomes with the observed ones. In contrary, this thesis explores the reality tv so, use of model-free approaches to execution monitoring, that is, approaches that do not use predictive models. These approaches solely observe the actual execution of the robot, and detect certain patterns that indicate a problem. The motivation to In America, carry out this exploration comes from two observations. First, there is very little work done on this topic, especially within the field of artificial intelligence and autonomous robotics. Second, model-free approaches have some complementary advantages and disadvantages compared to the model-based ones. In this thesis, we show that pattern recognition techniques can be applied to realize model-free execution monitoring by classifying observed behavioral patterns into normal or faulty behaviors. March By Geraldine Brooks? We investigate the use of several such techniques, and verify their utility in a number of experiments involving the navigation of In America a mobile robot in indoor environments. Statistical measures are used to compare the snowball, results given from several realistic simulations. Our approach has also been successfully tested on a real robot navigating in an office environment. Interesting, this test has shown that we can train a model-free execution monitor in In America simulation, and then use it in Lovers’ Declarations Richard and Prejudice a real robot.