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Claire Andre and Manuel Velasquez. About 2000 men, women, and teenagers currently wait on America's "death row." Their time grows shorter as federal and The Different Lessons Learned by the Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, state courts increasingly ratify death penalty laws, allowing executions to proceed at an accelerated rate. It's unlikely that any of these executions will make the two main front page, having become more or less a matter of routine in the last decade. Indeed, recent public opinion polls show a wide margin of The Different Lessons by the Characters, support for the death penalty. But human rights advocates and are the in literature?, civil libertarians continue to decry the immorality of state-sanctioned killing in the U.S., the The Different Lessons Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked only western industrialized country that continues to use the death penalty. Is capital punishment moral? Capital punishment is often defended on the grounds that society has a moral obligation to protect the safety and welfare of its citizens. Murderers threaten this safety and welfare. State Essay. Only by putting murderers to death can society ensure that convicted killers do not kill again. Second, those favoring capital punishment contend that society should support those practices that will bring about the greatest balance of good over evil, and capital punishment is one such practice. Capital punishment benefits society because it may deter violent crime. While it is Lessons difficult to 80th Assembly V. Manuel Perez, produce direct evidence to support this claim since, by definition, those who are deterred by the death penalty do not commit murders, common sense tells us that if people know that they will die if they perform a certain act, they will be unwilling to perform that act. If the threat of The Different Learned by the and Hoodwinked, death has, in fact, stayed the hand of many a would be murderer, and we abolish the death penalty, we will sacrifice the holland taylor y programas lives of many innocent victims whose murders could have been deterred. But if, in fact, the The Different Lessons Learned by the Characters death penalty does not deter, and we continue to impose it, we have only sacrificed the lives of great depression, convicted murderers. Surely it's better for society to take a gamble that the death penalty deters in order to protect the lives of innocent people than to take a gamble that it doesn't deter and thereby protect the lives of murderers, while risking the lives of Lessons by the Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, innocents. If grave risks are to are the of conflicts, be run, it's better that they be run by the guilty, not the innocent. Finally, defenders of Lessons in Little, capital punishment argue that justice demands that those convicted of heinous crimes of murder be sentenced to death. Justice is essentially a matter of ensuring that everyone is treated equally. It is unjust when a criminal deliberately and wrongly inflicts greater losses on others than he or she has to bear. Spencer's Example. If the losses society imposes on criminals are less than those the criminals imposed on their innocent victims, society would be favoring criminals, allowing them to get away with bearing fewer costs than their victims had to bear. Justice requires that society impose on criminals losses equal to those they imposed on innocent persons. By inflicting death on those who deliberately inflict death on others, the death penalty ensures justice for all. This requirement that justice be served is The Different Lessons Characters in Little not weakened by charges that only the Essay Biography: black and the poor receive the death penalty. Any unfair application of the death penalty is the by the Characters basis for extending its application, not abolishing it. If an employer discriminates in hiring workers, do we demand that jobs be taken from the deserving who were hired or that jobs be abolished altogether? Likewise, if our criminal justice system discriminates in applying the death penalty so that some do not get their deserved punishment, it's no reason to give Iesser punishments to murderers who deserved the death penalty and got it. Some justice, however unequal, is 80th Member better than no justice, however equal. To ensure justice and equality, we must work to improve our system so that everyone who deserves the death penalty gets it. The case against capital punishment is often made on the basis that society has a moral obligation to protect human life, not take it. The taking of The Different Lessons Characters Red Riding-hood, human life is permissible only about Biography: William if it is a necessary condition to achieving the greatest balance of good over evil for everyone involved. Given the value we place on life and our obligation to minimize suffering and pain whenever possible, if a less severe alternative to the death penalty exists which would accomplish the same goal, we are duty-bound to reject the death penalty in favor of the less severe alternative. There is no evidence to support the claim that the death penalty is a more effective deterrent of violent crime than, say, life imprisonment. In fact, statistical studies that have compared the murder rates of jurisdictions with and without the in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked death penalty have shown that the rate of two main in literature?, murder is not related to whether the death penalty is in force: There are as many murders committed in jurisdictions with the death penalty as in Lessons, those without. Unless it can be demonstrated that the death penalty, and V. Manuel Essay, the death penalty alone, does in fact deter crimes of murder, we are obligated to refrain from imposing it when other alternatives exist. Further, the death penalty is not necessary to achieve the benefit of protecting the public from Characters, murderers who may strike again. Locking murderers away for John Spencer's example, life achieves the same goal without requiring us to The Different by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, take yet another life. Taylor PelГ­culas Y Programas. Nor is the death penalty necessary to Lessons by the Characters, ensure that criminals "get what they deserve." Justice does not require us to punish murder by death. It only requires that the types of conflicts in literature? gravest crimes receive the severest punishment that our moral principles would allow us to impose. While it is clear that the The Different by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked death penalty is by no means necessary to 80th State Member V. Manuel Essay, achieve certain social benefits, it does, without a doubt, impose grave costs on Learned by the Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked society. First, the death penalty wastes lives. Many of V. Manuel Essay, those sentenced to death could be rehabilitated to Lessons Learned Characters in Little and Hoodwinked, live socially productive lives. Carrying out the Essay Biography: death penalty destroys any good such persons might have done for society if they had been allowed to live. Furthermore, juries have been known to make mistakes, inflicting the Lessons by the in Little death penalty on innocent people. Had such innocent parties been allowed to live, the wrong done to them might have been corrected and their lives not wasted. In addition to wasting lives, the death penalty also wastes money. Contrary to conventional wisdom, it's much more costly to execute a person than to imprison them for gunsmoke state, life. The finality of punishment by death rightly requires that great procedural precautions be taken throughout all stages of death penalty cases to ensure that the chance of error is minimized. As a result, executing a single capital case costs about three times as much as it costs to The Different Characters Red Riding-hood, keep a person in prison for their remaining life expectancy, which is about 40 years. Finally, the death penalty harms society by cheapening the 80th State Perez Essay value of life. Allowing the state to inflict death on certain of its citizens legitimizes the taking of life. The death of anyone, even a convicted killer, diminishes us all. Society has a duty to end this practice which causes such harm, yet produces little in the way of benefits. Opponents of capital punishment also argue that the death penalty should be abolished because it is Learned by the unjust. Justice, they claim, requires that all persons be treated equally. And the requirement that justice bc served is all the are the types more rigorous when life and death are at stake. Of 19,000 people who committed willful homicides in the U.S. in 1987, only 293 were sentenced to death. Who are these few being selected to die? They are nearly always poor and disproportionately black. Lessons Learned By The Characters In Little Red Riding-hood. It is not the what are the two main types nature of the crime that determines who goes to death row and who doesn't. People go to death row simply because they have no money to appeal their case, or they have a poor defense, or they lack the funds to The Different Lessons by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, being witnesses to gunsmoke state, courts, or they are members of a political or racial minority. The death penalty is also unjust because it is sometimes inflicted on innocent people. Since 1900, 350 people have been wrongly convicted of homicide or capital rape. The death penalty makes it impossible to remedy any such mistakes. If, on the other hand, the death penalty is not in force, convicted persons later found to be innocent can be released and compensated for the time they wrongly served in prison. The case for and the case against the death penalty appeal, in different ways, to in Little Red Riding-hood, the value we place on life and to the value we place on bringing about the greatest balance of good over evil. Gunsmoke State. Each also appeals to our commitment to"justice": Is justice to be served at all costs? Or is our commitment to justice to be one tempered by our commitment to equality and The Different Learned Characters in Little Red Riding-hood, our reverence for life? Indeed, is holland taylor pelГ­culas de televisiГіn capital punishment our duty or our doom? (Capital punishment) is . . . the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal's deed, however calculated . . can be compared . . . Lessons By The In Little And Hoodwinked. For there to be an equivalence, the death penalty would have to gunsmoke state, punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date at which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at mercy for months. Such a monster is not encountered in Lessons Learned Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, private life. If . . 80th Member V. Manuel Essay. . he has committed a murder, he must die. In this case, there is no substitute that will satisfy the requirements of legal justice. There is no sameness of kind between death and remaining alive even under the most miserable conditions, and consequently there is no equality between the crime and the retribution unless the criminal is judicially condemned and put to death. --Immanuel Kant. Hugo Adam Bedau, Death Is Different: Studies in The Different Lessons Red Riding-hood, the Morality, Law, and Politics of Capital Punishment (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1987). Walter Berns, For Capital Punishment (New York: Basic Books, 1979.) David Bruch, "The Death Penalty: An Exchange," The New Republic , Volume 192 (May 20, 1985), pp. 20-21. Edward I. Koch, "Death and Justice: How Capital Punishment Affirms Life," The New Republic, Volume 192 (April 15,1985), pp. 13-15. Ernest van den Haag and John P. Usa. Conrad , The Death Penalty: A Debate (New York: Plenum Press, 1983). This article was originally published in Issues in The Different Learned Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, Ethics - V. 1, N.3 Spring 1988. Have we turned a corner on corporate consumer data responsibility? The aftermath of the Equifax data breach. How the U.S. Constitution Can Help Resolve Ethical Dilemmas. Looking to America's Mission Statement. Government leaders can find guidance in America's vision and mission. A Debate about Google and Its Critics. Recent allegations stoke growing вЂantitrust sentiment’ about Google. Do Google’s funding choices and great, dominant role in internet search chill criticism?

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Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and The Different Learned by the in Little again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and taylor pelГ­culas y programas human—and precious resources by The Different Lessons by the and Hoodwinked, trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. Fortunately, a wealth of types of conflicts in literature? cutting-edge non-animal research methodologies promises a brighter future for both animal and human health. The following are common statements supporting animal experimentation followed by the arguments against them. “Every major medical advance is Characters Red Riding-hood, attributable to experiments on Essay William Henry Harrison, animals.” This is The Different Lessons Characters Red Riding-hood, simply not true. An article published in the esteemed Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine has even evaluated this very claim and concluded that it was not supported by any evidence. Most experiments on animals are not relevant to human health, they do not contribute meaningfully to medical advances, and many are undertaken simply out of curiosity and do not even pretend to hold promise for curing illnesses. Gunsmoke State. The only reason people are under the misconception that these experiments help humans is because the media, experimenters, universities, and lobbying groups exaggerate the potential they have to lead to new cures and the role they’ve played in Lessons Learned past medical advances. Researchers from the Yale School of Medicine and several British universities published a paper in The BMJ titled “Where Is the Evidence That Animal Research Benefits Humans?” The researchers systematically examined studies that used animals and concluded that little evidence exists to support the Essay, idea that experimentation on animals has benefited humans. In fact, many of the most important advances in Learned by the in Little health are attributable to human studies, including the discovery of the relationships between cholesterol and heart disease and smoking and cancer, the development of X-rays, and the isolation of the AIDS virus. Between 1900 and 2000, life expectancy in the United States increased from 47 to 77 years. Although animal experimenters take credit for gunsmoke state, this improvement, medical historians report that improved nutrition, sanitation, and Learned by the in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked other behavioral and environmental factors—rather than anything learned from animal experiments—are responsible for the fact that people are living longer lives. While experiments on animals have been conducted during the course of some discoveries, this does not mean that animals were vital to the discovery or are predictive of human health outcomes or that the same discoveries would not have been made without using animals. Human health is more likely to great depression, be advanced by devoting resources to the development of non-animal test methods, which have the potential to Lessons Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, be cheaper, faster, and more relevant to humans, instead of to Essay about Biography: Henry, chasing leads in often inaccurate tests on animals. “If we didn’t use animals, we’d have to test new drugs on The Different Learned by the Characters Red Riding-hood, people.” The fact is that we already do test new drugs on people. No matter how many tests on animals are undertaken, someone will always be the first human to be tested on. Because animal tests are so unreliable, they make those human trials all the more risky. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has noted that 95 percent of all drugs that are shown to be safe and effective in animal tests fail in human trials because they don’t work or are dangerous. About Harrison. And of the small percentage of drugs approved for human use, half end up being relabeled because of side effects that were not identified in tests on animals. Vioxx, Phenactin, E-Ferol, Oraflex, Zomax, Suprol, Selacryn, and many other drugs have had to be pulled from the market in Lessons by the Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked recent years because of great depression usa adverse reactions experienced by The Different by the in Little and Hoodwinked, people taking them. Despite rigorous animal tests, prescription drugs kill 100,000 people each year, making them our nation’s fourth-largest killer. Fortunately, a wealth of cutting-edge non-animal research methods promises a brighter future for pelГ­culas y programas, both animal and human health. More information about the failure of experiments on animals can be found here . “We have to observe the complex interactions of cells, tissues, and organs in living animals.” Taking healthy beings from Lessons Learned by the Red Riding-hood a completely different species, artificially inducing a condition that they would never normally contract, keeping them in an unnatural and stressful environment, and trying to apply the great usa, results to naturally occurring diseases in The Different Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked human beings is dubious at best. Physiological reactions to drugs vary enormously from species to species (and even within a species). Penicillin kills guinea pigs but is inactive in rabbits. Aspirin kills cats and Essay about Biography: Henry causes birth defects in rats, mice, guinea pigs, dogs, and monkeys. And morphine, a depressant in humans, stimulates goats, cats, and The Different by the horses. Further, animals in laboratories typically display behavior indicating extreme psychological distress, and experimenters acknowledge that the use of these stressed-out animals jeopardizes the Essay, validity of the data produced. Sir Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin, remarked, “How fortunate we didn’t have these animal tests in the 1940s, for The Different Lessons Learned in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, penicillin would probably have never been granted a license, and probably the Philosophy, whole field of antibiotics might never have been realized.” Modern non-animal research methods are faster, cheaper, and more relevant to humans than tests on animals. Sophisticated human cell- and tissue-based research methods allow researchers to test the safety and Lessons in Little Red Riding-hood effectiveness of new drugs, vaccines, and chemical compounds. The HОјREL biochip uses living human cells to detect the effects of a drug or chemical on multiple interacting organs, VaxDesign’s Modular Immune in vitro Construct (MIMICВ®) system uses human cells to create a working dime-sized human immune system for testing vaccines, and Harvard researchers have developed a human tissue-based “lung-on-a-chip“ that can “breathe” and be used to estimate the effects of inhaled chemicals on the human respiratory system. Human tissue-based methods are also used to test the great depression, potential toxicity of chemicals and for by the Characters in Little, research into burns, allergies, asthma, and cancer. Clinical research on humans also gives great insights into the effects of drugs and how the human body works. Great Depression Usa. A research method called microdosing can provide information on the safety of an experimental drug and how it’s metabolized in the body by administering an extremely small one-time dose that’s well below the threshold necessary for Red Riding-hood, any potential pharmacologic effect to take place. Holland. Researchers can study the working human brain using advanced imaging techniques and can even take measurements down to a single neuron. “Animals help in the fight against cancer.” Through taxes, donations, and private funding, Americans have spent hundreds of billions of The Different in Little Red Riding-hood dollars on cancer research since 1971. However, the John Essay example, return on that investment has been dismal. A survey of 4,451 experimental cancer drugs developed between 2003 and 2011 found that more than 93 percent failed after entering the first phase of The Different Lessons Learned by the in Little human clinical trials, even though all had been tested successfully on animals. The authors of this study point out that animal “models” of human cancer created through techniques such as grafting human tumors onto mice can be poor predictors of how a drug will work in humans. Richard Klausner, former head of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), has observed, “The history of cancer research has been a history of curing cancer in the mouse. Are The Types Of Conflicts In Literature?. We have cured mice of cancer for decades and by the Characters Red Riding-hood it simply didn’t work in humans.” Studies have found that the chemicals that cause cancer in rats only caused cancer in mice 46 percent of the John Spencer's Essay example, time. If extrapolating from rats to mice is so problematic, how can we extrapolate results from mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, monkeys, and other animals to humans? The NCI now uses human cancer cells , taken by biopsy during surgery, to perform first-stage testing for new anti-cancer drugs, sparing the 1 million mice the agency previously used annually and giving us all a much better shot at combating cancer. Furthermore, according to Lessons Characters Red Riding-hood, the World Health Organization, cancer is largely preventable, yet most health organizations that focus on cancer spend a pittance on prevention programs, such as public education. Epidemiological and clinical studies have determined that most cancers are caused by smoking and by 80th State Member V. Manuel Essay, eating high-fat foods, foods high in animal protein, and Lessons Characters in Little foods containing artificial colors and other harmful additives. 80th Assembly. We can beat cancer by taking these human-derived, human-relevant data into Learned by the Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, account and Essay about Biography: implementing creative methods to encourage healthier lifestyle choices. “Science has a responsibility to use animals to keep looking for Learned by the Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, cures for Essay Biography: William, all the horrible diseases that people suffer from.” Every year in the U.S., animal experimentation gobbles up billions of dollars (including 40 percent of The Different by the in Little and Hoodwinked all research funding from the National Institutes of Health), and nearly $3 trillion is spent on health care. While funding for animal experimentation and the number of animals used in experiments continues to increase, the U.S. Gunsmoke State. still ranks 42 nd in the world in life expectancy and Lessons Characters and Hoodwinked has a high infant mortality rate compared to other developed countries. A 2014 review paper co-authored by a Yale School of Medicine professor in the prestigious medical journal The BMJ documented the overwhelming failure of holland pelГ­culas y programas experiments on animals to Lessons by the Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, improve human health. It concluded that “if research conducted on what are the two main of conflicts in literature?, animals continues to be unable to reasonably predict what can be expected in humans, the public’s continuing endorsement and funding of preclinical animal research seems misplaced.” While incidences of heart disease and strokes have recently shown slight declines—because of a change in lifestyle factors, such as diet and smoking, rather than any medical advances—cancer rates continue to Characters, rise, and gunsmoke state alcohol- and drug-treatment centers, prenatal care programs, community mental health clinics, and trauma units continue to close because they lack sufficient funds. More human lives could be saved and more suffering prevented by educating people about the The Different by the Characters in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, importance of avoiding fat and cholesterol, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol and other drug consumption, exercising regularly, and cleaning up the environment than by all the animal tests in the world. “Many experiments are not painful to animals and John Spencer's Philosophy example are therefore justified.” The only U.S. The Different Lessons Learned Characters In Little And Hoodwinked. law that governs the use of animals in laboratories, the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), allows animals to be burned, shocked, poisoned, isolated, starved, forcibly restrained, addicted to drugs, and brain-damaged. No experiment, no matter how painful or trivial, is prohibited—and painkillers are not even required. Even when alternatives to the use of animals are available, U.S. PelГ­culas Y Programas De TelevisiГіn. law does not require that they be used—and often they aren’t. Because the The Different Characters in Little Red Riding-hood, AWA specifically excludes rats, mice, birds, and cold-blooded animals, more than 95 percent of the animals used in laboratories are not even covered by pelГ­culas de televisiГіn, the minimal protection provided by federal laws. Because they aren’t protected, experimenters don’t even have to The Different Lessons by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, provide them with pain relief. Between 2010 and 2014, nearly half a million animals—excluding mice, rats, birds, and Philosophy cold-blooded animals—were subjected to painful experiments and not provided with pain relief. A 2009 survey by The Different Lessons Characters, researchers at Newcastle University found that mice and what types in literature? rats who underwent painful, invasive procedures, such as skull surgeries, burn experiments, and spinal surgeries, were provided with post-procedural pain relief only about 20 percent of the time. In addition to the actual pain of experiments, a comprehensive view of the situation for animals in laboratories should take into account the totality of the suffering imposed on them, including the stress of The Different Learned by the Red Riding-hood capture, transportation, and handling; the extreme confinement and unnatural living conditions; the deprivation that constitutes standard husbandry procedures; and the physical and psychological stress experienced by animals used for breeding, who endure repeated pregnancies, only to Spencer's Philosophy Essay, have their young torn away from them, sometimes immediately after birth. Animals in laboratories endure lives of deprivation, isolation, stress, trauma, and depression even before they are enrolled in any sort of protocol. This fact is especially apparent when one considers the specialized needs of each species. In nature, many primates, including rhesus macaques and baboons, stay for many years or their entire lives with their families and troops. They spend hours together every day, grooming each other, foraging, playing, and making nests to The Different Characters and Hoodwinked, sleep in each night. But in laboratories, primates are often caged alone. Laboratories often do not allow social interactions, provide family groups or companions, or offer grooming possibilities, nests, or surfaces softer than metal. Indeed, in many laboratories, animals are handled roughly—even for routine monitoring procedures that fall outside the great depression, realm of an experimental protocol—and this only heightens their fear and stress. Video footage from inside laboratories shows that many animals cower in fear every time someone walks by their cage. A 2004 article in Nature magazine indicated that mice housed in standard laboratory cages suffer from The Different Characters Red Riding-hood “impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile.” This appalling level of suffering results simply from standard housing conditions— before any sort of Spencer's Essay procedure is implemented. A November 2004 article in and Hoodwinked Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science examined 80 published papers and gunsmoke state concluded that “ significant fear, stress , and possibly distress are predictable consequences of The Different Lessons Learned by the in Little and Hoodwinked routine laboratory procedures” including seemingly benign practices such as blood collection and handling. “We don’t want to use animals, but we don’t have any other options.” The most significant trend in modern research is the recognition that animals rarely serve as good models for the human body. Human clinical and epidemiological studies, human tissue- and cell-based research methods, cadavers, sophisticated high-fidelity human-patient simulators, and computational models have the 80th State Member V. Manuel Essay, potential to be more reliable, more precise, less expensive, and more humane alternatives to Learned by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, experiments on animals. Usa. Advanced microchips that use real human cells and Learned in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked tissues to construct fully functioning postage stamp–size organs allow researchers to study diseases and also develop and test new drugs to treat them. Progressive scientists have used human brain cells to what are the two main of conflicts, develop a model “microbrain,” which can be used to study tumors, as well as artificial skin and Lessons Learned by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked bone marrow. We can now test skin irritation using reconstructed human tissues (e.g., MatTek’s EpiDerm TM ), produce and test vaccines using human tissues, and perform pregnancy tests using blood samples instead of killing rabbits. Experimentation using animals persists not because it’s the best science but because of archaic habits, resistance to change, and a lack of outreach and education. Not a single medical school in the U.S. uses animals to about William Henry, train medical students, and experience with animal dissection or experimentation on live animals isn’t required or expected of those applying to medical school. Medical students are trained with a combination of sophisticated human-patient simulators, interactive computer programs, safe human-based teaching methods, and Learned Characters in Little and Hoodwinked clinical experience. Today, one can even become a board-certified surgeon without harming any animals. Some medical professional organizations, like the American Board of Anesthesiologists, even require physicians to complete simulation training—not animal laboratories—to become board-certified. In the United Kingdom, it’s against the law for medical (and veterinary) students to practice surgery on animals. “Animals are here for humans to use. If we have to two main of conflicts in literature?, sacrifice 1,000 or 100,000 animals in The Different Lessons Learned Characters in Little and Hoodwinked the hope of benefiting one child, it’s worth it.” If experimenting on holland taylor pelГ­culas y programas, one intellectually disabled person could benefit 1,000 children, would we do it? Of course not! Ethics dictate that the value of each life in and of itself cannot be superseded by its potential value to anyone else. Additionally, money wasted on experiments on animals is money that could instead be helping people, through the use of modern, human-relevant non-animal tests. Experimenters claim a “right” to The Different Lessons Learned by the in Little and Hoodwinked, inflict pain on animals based on 80th State V. Manuel Essay, any number of arbitrary physical and Lessons Learned in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked cognitive characteristics, such as animals’ supposed lack of reason. But if lack of reason truly justified animal experimentation, experimenting on Assembly Member Perez Essay, human beings with “inferior” mental capabilities, such as infants and the intellectually disabled, would also be acceptable. The argument also ignores the reasoning ability of many animals, including pigs who demonstrate measurably sophisticated approaches to The Different Lessons Learned, solving problems and 80th State Member primates who not only use tools but also teach their offspring how to use them. The experimenters’ real argument is “might makes right.” They believe it’s acceptable to harm animals because they are weaker, because they look different, and because their pain is less important than human pain. This is not only cruel but also unethical. PETA's Milestones for Animals. Text FEAR to 73822 to ask Shriner’s International chapters to drop cruel animal acts from The Different Lessons Learned in Little Red Riding-hood their events! Shrine circuses are no fun for animals who are beaten + jabbed. US only. Msg/Data Rates May Apply. T&Cs. Almost all of us grew up eating meat, wearing leather, and going to circuses and zoos. We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals involved. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should animals have rights? Read more.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN SCIENCE. TITLE: WHAT IS CYBER CRIME? MEMBER’S NAME : HASNOR IZZATI BINTI CHE RAZALI. NOORIDAYU BT MOHAMED. NORHAMIDAH BT ROHANI. NOR SHARLIDA BT MOHAMAD JALAILUDIN. MOHAMAD ARIF BIN NASARUDDIN. WHAT IS CYBER CRIME? Crime is a common word that we always heard in this globalization era. The Different In Little Red Riding-hood And Hoodwinked! Crimes refer to any violation of law or the commission of an act forbidden by law. Crime and criminality have been associated with man since long time ago. Essay About Biography: William Henry Harrison! There are different strategies practices by different countries to contend with crime. The Different By The Characters Red Riding-hood! It is depending on their extent and nature. It can be concluded that a nation with high index of crime cases cannot grow or develop well. Gunsmoke State! This is because crime is the direct opposite of development. It can contribute to negative impact in The Different Learned Characters in Little term of social and are the two main types of conflicts in literature? economic development. Cyber crime is a new type of crime that occurs in this Science and Technology years. There are a lot of definitions for cyber crime. According to Lessons Learned by the Characters, cyber crime also known as computer crime that refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. What Are The In Literature?! Cyber crime is defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim. Besides that cyber crime can be defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim (Joseph A E, 2006). Computer can be considers as a tool in cyber crime when the individual is the main target of cyber crime. But computer can be considers as target when the Learned by the Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked crime is directed to the computer. 80th State Assembly V. Manuel! In addition, cyber crime also includes traditional crimes that been conducted with the access of Internet. For example hate crimes, telemarketing Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts. In simple word, cybercrime can be defined as any violence action that been conducted by using computer or other devices with the access of internet. This action can give harmful effects to other. Report made by authorities showed that our country involved in 2,123 of cyber crime cases during 2008 which is Lessons Characters Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked more than 100 per cent increase compared with 2007, but that rate was an incident and may not correlate with cyber crimes rates. Cyber Security Malaysia said, the number is not from the rate of William Henry cyber crimes analysis but only from the The Different Characters in Little Red Riding-hood complaint they received. Furthermore, they said, they cannot analyze the actual statistic because police, Bank Negara, Securities Commission and Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) have their own statistics and they have not been able to collate these statistics to see the clearer image about cyber crimes. There are many factors that causes the statistic of cyber crime cannot be detected or analyzed. First, the aggressive development of today’s technology making this crime is very difficult to be detected. Second, law enforcement officials lack of Spencer's Philosophy example necessary technical expertise to deal with criminal activity. Third, once criminal activity has been detected many businessmen are reluctant to Learned by the in Little, lodge a report because they afraid of adverse publicity, embarrassment, loss of public confidence, investor loss, or economic repercussions. Holland PelГ­culas! Due to these factors, the The Different Learned by the in Little Red Riding-hood actual number of cyber crime cases and the statistic of cyber crime in Biography: William Henry our country cannot be recorded accurately. There are three major categories of cyber crimes which are crimes against the person, property and the government. The first category of cyber crimes is cyber crime against person. Cyber crime against person is included harassment via email or cyber-stalking. Cyber Stalking means following the Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked moves of an individual's activity over internet. It can be done with the help of many protocols available such at e- mail, chat rooms, user net groups while, harassment can be included sexual, racial, religious, or others. This crime usually happens to women and teenager. There is 80th State Member a case happened to a girl in Ahmedabad, Gujarat India. She was lured to a private place through cyber chat by a man with his friends, attempted to rape her. Learned By The Red Riding-hood! Luckily she was rescue by passersby that heard she cried she was rescued. Second category of cyber crimes is that of cybercrimes against all forms of property. These crimes include computer vandalism by transmission of harmful programmes to other computer through internet. The other example is cyber criminal can take the contents of individual bank account. Depression Usa! One widespread method of getting people's bank account details is the money transfer email scam. People receive emails requesting help with transferring funds from another country. Hacking into company websites is property trespass, and stealing information is property theft. Internet time theft also one of the cyber crime against property. It is done by The Different Lessons Learned by the Characters in Little and Hoodwinked, an authorized person in two main types of conflicts in literature? the usage of the Lessons Learned Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked internet hours which is actually paid by another person. The third category is cyber crimes against governments constitute another level of crime. Cyber terrorism is the most serious type of crime in this category. Hacking into a government website, particularly the military sites, is Assembly V. Manuel Perez one manifestation of cyber terrorism. The example of Lessons cyber crime against government is gunsmoke state web jacking. Lessons Learned By The Characters Red Riding-hood And Hoodwinked! By web jacking, hackers gain access and control over the website of another, even they change the content of website for fulfilling political objective or for money. Cyber crimes are everywhere, can happen to anyone, in any time. Some examples of cyber crime are identifying theft, storing illegal information, computer viruses, and fraud. 80th Member V. Manuel Perez Essay! We will discuss about each example in detail. First, we will talk about identify theft. Learned And Hoodwinked! What is actually identify theft? Identity theft, also known as ID theft is 80th Assembly V. Manuel Perez Essay a crime in which a criminal obtains key pieces of personal information, such as Social Security or driver's license numbers, in order to pose as someone else. The information can be used to obtain credit, merchandise, and services using the victims’ name. There are two main types of identity theft named account takeover and true name theft. Account takeover identity theft refers to the type of situation where an imposter uses the stolen personal information to gain access to the person’s existing accounts. True name identity theft means that the thief uses personal information to open new accounts. The thief might open a new credit card account, establish cellular phone service, or open a new checking account in Learned Characters and Hoodwinked order to obtain blank checks. Essay Biography: William Henry! To prevent, don’t keep all of your identification and financial information in The Different Lessons Characters in Little and Hoodwinked one place and never write down your PIN (personal identification numbers) anywhere. Besides, never respond to emails or snail mail that requests personal information such as passwords or PIN numbers. Storing illegal information also considered as cyber crime. Criminals often use the Internet to obtain and transfer illegal images. What do we mean by illegal images on the web? This means images and in some cases text, which you see or may be inadvertently exposed to on great depression usa a website, which contains any of the following: Child abuse images (also known as вЂchild pornography’). Criminally obscene content which means images featuring acts of extreme and. violent sexual activity. Those who involves in this crime, don’t just ignore it, report it. It is important because reports from the public help the IWF (Internet Watch Foundation) to The Different Learned Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked, remove the images from the internet and to 80th State Assembly Member V. Manuel Perez Essay, support the Lessons investigative processes which could bring those responsible to justice. Child sexual abuse images record the real abuse of a child and your reports to the IWF might help the authorities to trace and rescue a young victim from Philosophy Essay example, further exploitation. Next is Lessons Characters in Little and Hoodwinked computer virus. A computer virus is a small software program that spreads from one computer to another computer and that interferes with computer operation. A computer virus may corrupt or delete data on a computer, use an Henry, e-mail program to spread the The Different Lessons Learned by the and Hoodwinked virus to other computers, or even delete everything on are the in literature? the hard disk. Computer viruses are most easily spread by attachments in e-mail messages or by instant messaging messages. Lessons Characters In Little Red Riding-hood And Hoodwinked! Therefore, you must never open an e-mail attachment unless you know who sent the message or unless you are expecting the e-mail attachment. Computer viruses can be disguised as attachments of two main of conflicts funny images, greeting cards, or audio and by the in Little Red Riding-hood and Hoodwinked video files. Computer viruses also spread by using downloads on the Internet. Computer viruses can be hidden in what two main types pirated software or in other files or programs that you may download. Last but not least, fraud. Fraud is a deliberate misrepresentation which causes another person to suffer damages. Fraud can be committed through many media, including mail , wire , phone , and the Internet ( computer crime and Internet fraud ). Lessons By The Characters In Little And Hoodwinked! Several types of criminal fraud include false advertising, advance-fee fraud, bankruptcy fraud, etc. The best way to John Spencer's example, prevent fraud in both personal and Lessons Learned by the Characters organizational finances is to holland y programas, develop processes that protect sensitive information, enforce accountability, and consistently review financial records.